Main Article Content
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of feeding practices, maternal dietary habits and maternal body mass index (BMI) on growth pattern of breast-fed and formula-fed infants.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 50 healthy infants. Twenty-five each breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants along with their mothers were enrolled. The infants’ weight, height, BMI, head circumference and skinfolds (biceps and triceps) were recorded. Infant’s mother weight, height, BMI, mid-arm circumference and skinfolds were also recorded. The mothers filled 24-hours dietary-recall proforma. The 24-hours dietary-recall was then analyzed by windiet® software.
RESULTS: Age of infants was 78.40±35.88 days at time of assessment. Height and weight standard deviation score (SDS) was found to be -2.759±3.10 and -0.538±2.05 with SDS of BMI was 1.59±2.30. Mean anthropometric measurements between the two groups were not significantly different except for head circumference (BF=38.12±4.46, FF=40.32±2.34; p-value=0.036). BMI and age of mothers were 26.49±4.93 kg/m2 and 29.54±2.86 years at assessment. Anthropometric analysis of mothers showed an increasing trend of different parameters especially waist circumference (cm) in breast-feeding mothers (lactating=75±15.6, non-lactating=61±18.2, p-value=0.007). Dietary intake of lactating mothers (energy=3032±12 Kcal; % energy intake=125.9±53.3) was more as compared to non-lactating mothers (1878±99 Kcal; % energy intake=78±41.2). Similarly intake of carbohydrates (lactating=414±186, non-lactating=274±175), fats (lactating=109±60.4, non-lactating=66.6±33.7), proteins (lactating=98.2±52.5, non-lactating=60.2±54.2), zinc (lactating=14.64±7.28, non-lactating=8.08±8.53), selenium (lactating=30.4±22.3, non-lactating=4.12±7.64) and dietary fiber (lactating=41.3±19.5, non-lactating=20.4±15.5) were significantly different.
CONCLUSION: Growth pattern of both breast-fed and formula-fed infants were not significantly different. Energy intake, percentage energy intake and intake of macronutrients & micronutrients are more in lactating mothers.
Work published in KMUJ is licensed under a
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
2. Chauhan MG, Mehta DP, Koria B, Patel H, Singh M. Assessment of weight gain pattern of exclusively breastfed and nonexclusively breastfed infants in Bhavnagar city, Gujarat. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2016;5(01):64-8. DOI: 10.5455/ijmsph.2016.1505201518.
3. Michaelsen KF, Petersen S, Greisen G, Thomsen BL. Weight, length, head circumference, and growth velocity in a longitudinal study of Danish infants. Dan Med Bull 1994;41(5):577-85.
4. Goran M, Martin A, Alderete T, Fujiwara H, Fields D. Fructose in breast milk is positively associated with infant body composition at 6 months of age. Nutrients 2017;9(2):pii. E146. DOI: 10.3390/nu9020146.
5. Fields DA, Demerath EW. Relationship of insulin, glucose, leptin, IL‐6 and TNF‐α in human breast milk with infant growth and body composition. Pediatr Obes 2012;7(4):304-12. DOI: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00059.x.
6. Roy SM, Fields DA, Mitchell JA, Hawkes CP, Kelly A, Wu GD, et al. Body mass index is a better indicator of body composition than weight-for-length at age 1 month. J Pediatr 2019;204:77-83.e1. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.08.007.
7. World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. 2006. World Health Organization, Geneva. [Cited on: April 18, 2019]. Available from URL: https://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/technical_report/en/
8. Agostoni C, Grandi F, Gianni M, Silano M, Torcoletti M, Giovannini M, et al. Growth patterns of breast fed and formula fed infants in the first 12 months of life: an Italian study. Arch Dis Child 1999;81(5):395-9. DOI: 10.1136/adc.81.5.395.
9. Saure C, Armeno M, Barcala C, Giudici V, Mazza CS. Excessive weight gain in exclusively breast-fed infants. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017;30(7):719-24. DOI: 10.1515/jpem-2017-0028.
10. Kalies H, Heinrich J, Borte N, Schaaf B, Von Berg A, Von Kries R, et al. The effect of breastfeeding on weight gain in infants: results of a birth cohort study. Eur J Med Res 2005;10(1):36-42.
11. Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA. Maternal weight-loss patterns during prolonged lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58(2):162-6. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/58.2.162.
12. Hatsu IE, McDougald DM, Anderson AK. Effect of infant feeding on maternal body composition. Int Breastfeed J 2008;3(1):18. DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-3-18.
13. Kramer FM, Stunkard AJ, Marshall KA, McKinney S, Liebschutz J. Breast-feeding reduces maternal lower-body fat. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93(4):429-33. DOI: 10.1016/0002-8223(93)92289-a.
14. Siigur U, Ormisson A, Tamm A. Faecal short-chain fatty acids in breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. Acta Paediatr 1993;82(6-7):536-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1993.tb12747.x.
15. Institute of Medicine. 1991. Nutrition during lactation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. DOI: 10.17226/1577.
16. Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Rivera LL. Effects of exclusive breastfeeding for four versus six months on maternal nutritional status and infant motor development: results of two randomized trials in Honduras. J Nutr 2001;131(2):262-7. DOI: 10.1093/jn/131.2.262.
17. Rasmussen K, K. McGuire M. Effects of Breastfeeding on Maternal Health and Well-Being. Food Nutr Bull 1996;17(4):364-9. DOI: 10.1177/156482659601700416.
18. Sanusi R, Falana O. The nutritional status of mothers practicing breast feeding in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Biomed Res 2009;12(2):107-12
19. Lano-maduagu AT, Abiola OM, Akorede QJ, Tunrayo EB. Assessment of socio-economic, dietary intake, hygienicpractice and anthropometric indices in determining the nutritional status of mothers in Akure south local government, Ondo state. Int J Recent Res Appl Stud 2013;15:158-67.
20. Butte NF, Garza C, Stuff JE, Smith E, Nichols B. Effect of maternal diet and body composition on lactational performance. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39(2):296-306. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/39.2.296.
21. do Carmo MdGT, Colares LGT, Sandre-Pereira G, Soares EdA. Nutritional status of Brazilian lactating women. Nutr Food Sci 2001;31(4):194-200. DOI: 10.1108/00346650110392280.
22. Moser PB, Reynolds RD, Acharya S, Howard MP, Andon M, Lewis S. Copper, iron, zinc, and selenium dietary intake and status of Nepalese lactating women and their breast-fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;47(4):729-34. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/47.4.729
23. Choi YK, Kim J-M, Lee J-E, Cho MS, Kang BS, Choi H, et al. Association of maternal diet with zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in transitional human milk produced by Korean mothers. Clin Nutr Res 2016;5(1):15-25. DOI: 10.7762/cnr.2016.5.1.15.
24. Beshgetoor D, Lönnerdal B. Effect of marginal maternal zinc deficiency in rats on mammary gland zinc metabolism. J Nutr Biochem 1997;8(10):573-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0955-2863(97)00091-0.
25. Jooste P, Rossouw L, Steenkamp H, Rossouw J, Swanepoel A, Charlton D. Effect of breast feeding on the plasma cholesterol and growth of infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1991;13(2):139-42. DOI: 10.1097/00005176-199108000-00004.
26. Nelson SE, Rogers RR, Ziegler EE, Fomon SJ. Gain in weight and length during early infancy. Early Hum Dev 1989;19(4):223-39. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3782(89)90057-1.
27. Roche AF, Guo S, Siervogel RM, Khamis HJ, Chandra RK. Growth comparison of breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Can J Public Health 1993;84(2):132-5.
28. Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lonnerdal B. Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants from 0 to 18 months: the DARLING Study. Pediatrics 1992;89(6 Pt 1):1035-41.
29. Ziegler EE. Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 2006;58:51-9; discussion 59-63. DOI: 10.1159/000095010.
30. Salmenpera L, Perheentupa J, Siimes MA. Exclusively breast-fed healthy infants grow slower than reference infants. Pediatr Res 1985;19(3):307-12. DOI: 10.1203/00006450-198503000-00011.