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OBJECTIVE: To find the effect of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on intelligence quotient (IQ) in school going children of Peshawar, Pakistan.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study a total of 153 children (male and female) of age 7-11 years were included. Socio-demographic questionnaire was designed for the collection of data. Blood specimens were collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and gel tubes. Complete blood count (CBC) was analyzed using fully automatic hematology analyzer (Model Sysmex XP-100, serial no.B2444) in EDTA blood. Ferritin levels were analyzed using chemistry analyzer (Model: Cobas e-6000), by Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) in serum. Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was used for finding IQ of children. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-22.
RESULTS: Out of 153 children 66 (43.1%) were females and 87 (56.9%) were males. The prevalence of IDA was 11.7%. The mean IQ of nuclear family (57.3±37.33) was significantly higher than joint family children (34.8±34.53). The mean IQ of male (41.7±35.0) is bit higher than female (39.0±38.62). In 153 children, 66 (43.1%) were normal, 33 (21.6%) were obese and 54 (35.3%) were underweight. IQ of below average children with the average ones shows significant difference with hemoglobin and hematocrit (HCT). IQ of iron deficient anemic children was significantly lower than the normal children. The mean IQ, hemoglobin and ferritin levels for children having IDA were 9.1±8.01 (percentile), 11.2±0.33 (g/dl), and 9.6±1.2 (ng/ml) respectively.
CONCLUSION: Intelligence of school going children is significantly affected with IDA and they have low IQ values as compared to normal children.
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