EFFECT OF BREAKFAST ON BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) IN MALE CHILDREN IN NORTHERN BORDER REGION SAUDI ARABIA
PDF

How to Cite

Alenazi, S., Ali, H., Alshammary, O., Al Enazi, M., & Wazir, F. (2014). EFFECT OF BREAKFAST ON BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) IN MALE CHILDREN IN NORTHERN BORDER REGION SAUDI ARABIA. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, 6(3). Retrieved from https://www.kmuj.kmu.edu.pk/article/view/12937

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: to determine the effect of regular homemade breakfast on body mass index (BMI) of school going male children in Northern region of Saudi Arabia.

METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study was conducted during September and November 2013, in Primary Schools of Arar city of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All classes from the first to the third grade, 359 students of age group 5-9 years in each selected school were included in the study. Of the total 558 questionnaires distributed, asking them whether taking breakfast or not, we measured height in meters weight in kg, and calculated BMI by the formula BMI= weight in Kg/ height in (meters) 2.  

RESULTS: The Mean age of the primary school-going male children in grade 2-5, was 7.09±0.89 years. Mean height of the children was 1.18±0.077 meters and mean weight was 25.03±6.74Kg, while mean BMI was 17.97±3.59. Mean BMI was 18.78±2.34 in students who were taking breakfast (n 372) was and 15.10±2.66 in students who were not taking any breakfast (p<0.001). The odds ratio of the children who were “taking” regular breakfast and who were “not taking” regular breakfast for having abnormal BMI (overweight/underweight) or normal BMI was 0.02 (p = < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: The result shows that the regular consumption of breakfast in home results in a normal BMI and a reduced likelihood of being underweight in school going male children. There is a positive effect of having regular breakfast on school going male children.

PDF

References

Poustie VJ, Smyth RL, Cole TJ. Reliability of calculating body mass index centile. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59(5):717-9.

WHO multicenter growth reference group. Assessment of differences in linear growth among population in the WHO multicenter growth references study. Acta Paediatr 2006;450:56-65.

Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Guo SS, Grummer-Strawn LM, Flegal KM, Mei Z, et al. The 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States: Methods and development. Vital Health Stat 11 2002;246:1-190.

McNaughton SA, Ball K, Mishra GD, Crawford, DA. Dietary patterns of adolescents and risk of obesity and hypertension. J Nutr 2008; 138:364–70.

Patro B, Szajewska H. Meal patterns and childhood obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2010; 13:300–4.

Timlin M, Pereira M, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Breakfast eating and weight change in a 5-year prospective analysis of adolescents: project EAT. Pediatrics 2008; 121:e638–e645.

Song WO, Chun OK, Kerver J, Cho S, Chung CE, Chung SJ. Ready-to-eat breakfast cereal consumption enhances milk and calcium intake in the US population. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106:1783–9.

Rampersaud G. Benefits of breakfast for children and adolescents: update and recommendations for practitioners. Am J Lifestyle Med 2008; 3:86–103.

Driskell JA, Kim Y-N, Goebel KJ. Few differences found in the typical eating and physical activity habits of lower-level and upper-level university students. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:798-801.

Keski-Rahkonen A, Kaprio J, Rissanen A, Virkkunen M, Rose RJ. Breakfast skipping and health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57:842–53.

Toschke AM, Thorsteinsdottir KH, von Kries R. GME Study Group. Meal frequency, breakfast consumption and childhood obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes 2009;4:242–8.

Koletzko B, Toschke A. Meal patterns and frequencies: do they affect body weight in children and adolescents? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2010; 50:100–5.

Amin TT, Al-Sultan AI, Ali A. Overweight and obesity and their association with dietary habits, and sociodemographic characteristics among male primary school children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Indian J Community Med 2008;33(3):172-81.

Al-Dossary SS, Sarkis PE, Hassan A, Ezz El Regal M, Fouda AE. Obesity in Saudi children: A dangerous reality. East Mediterr Health J 2010;16(9):1003-8.

El-Hazmi MA, Warsy AS. A comparative study of prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in different provinces of Saudi Arabia. J Trop Pediatr 2002;48(3):172-7.

Al Herbish AS, El Mouzan MI, Al Salloum AA, Al Qureshi MM, Al Omar AA, Foster PJ, et al. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: A national reference and comparison with international standards. Ann Saudi Med 2009;29(5):342-7.

Orsi CM, Hale DE, Lynch JL. Pediatric obesity epidemiology. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2011; 18(1):14-22.

Barba G, Sieri S, Russo MD, Donatiello E, Formisano A, Lauria F, Sparano S, et at. ARCA Project Study Group. Glycaemic index and body fat distribution in children: the results of the ARCA project. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2012;22(1):28-34.

Iannotti RJ, Wang J. Trends in Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Diet, and BMI Among US Adolescents, 2001-2009. Pediatrics 2013;132(4):606-14.

de la Hunty A, Gibson S, Ashwell M. Does regular breakfast cereal consumption help children and adolescents stay slimmer? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Facts 2013;6(1):70-85.

Fairclough SJ, Hackett AF, Davies IG, Gobbi R, Mackintosh KA, Warburton GL, Stratton G, van Sluijs EM, Boddy LM. Promoting healthy weight in primary school children through physical activity and nutrition education: a pragmatic evaluation of the CHANGE! randomised intervention study. BMC Public Health 2013;13:626.

Tin SP, Ho SY, Mak KH, Wan KL, Lam TH. Breakfast skipping and change in body mass index in young children. Int J Obes (Lond) 2011;35(7):899-906.

Tin SP, Ho SY, Mak KH, Wan KL, Lam TH. Location of breakfast consumption predicts body mass index change in young Hong Kong children. Int J Obes (Lond) 2012; 36(7):925-30.

Guinn CH, Baxter SD, Royer JA, Hitchcock DB. Explaining the positive relationship between fourth-grade children's body mass index and energy intake at school-provided meals (breakfast and lunch). J Sch Health 2013;83(5):328-34.

Baxter SD, Hardin JW, Guinn CH, Royer JA, Mackelprang AJ, Devlin CM. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2010;7:24.

MacDiarmid J, Loe J, Craig LC, Masson LF, Holmes B, McNeill G. Meal and snacking patterns of school-aged children in Scotland. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009;63(11):1297-304.

Work published in KMUJ is licensed under a

 Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic License.

Creative Commons License

Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.