Main Article Content

Nabila Sher Mohammad
Rubina Nazli
akmal khan
Tasleem akhtar
jawad ahmad
Zarghuna zafar


Objective: To find out the effect of combined oral contraceptives pills (COCPs) on lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index in females of reproductive age.

Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2011 in Family Planning Department of tertiary referral health care hospitals of Peshawar.A total of 200 married fertile women of child bearing age (14-49 years) participatedin the study. They were divided in two groups: Group 1 (COCPs users at least for six months) and group 2 (age matched controls not using COCPs). Fasting levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were analyzed using chemistry analyzer. Haemoglobin (Hb) and platelets counts were measured on haematology analyzer. Body Mass Index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were measured in all subjects. Various parameters were compared among oral and control groups by using SPSS version 10.

Results: Comparing females of group-1 vs group-2, there was significant increase of cholesterol (185+3.27mg/dl vs 158.26+2.81mg/dL; p=0.0001), triglycerides (207.33+4.92mg/dL vs 135.63+4.49mg/dL; p=0.0001), LDL-C (98.20+ 3.11mg/dL vs 85.19+2.65mg/dL; p= 0.002), BMI (27.52+0.371 vs 24.79+0.34 Kg/m2; p=0.0004), systolic BP (133.30+1.71 vs 122.69+1.35 mmHg; p=0.0007) and diastolic BP (84.85+1.16 vs 80.79+0.89 mmHg; p=0.009). Changes in the HDL-C (46.18+0.82 vs 45.92+0.91mg/dL; p=0.833), Hb (12.95+ 0.16 vs 12.47+0.17 g/dL; p=0.045) and platelet count (262510.00+8822.64 vs 258882.63+9843.44 thousand/uL) were not significant.

Conclusion: Significantly elevated lipid profile, BP and BMI were recorded in women using COCPs.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mohammad, N. S., R. Nazli, akmal khan, T. akhtar, jawad ahmad, and Z. zafar. “EFFECT OF COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS ON LIPID PROFILE, BLOOD PRESSURE AND BODY MASS INDEX IN WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, vol. 5, no. 1, Mar. 2013, pp. 22-26, https://www.kmuj.kmu.edu.pk/article/view/11148.
Original Articles



Margolis KL, Adami HO, Luo J, Ye W, Weiderpass E. A prospective Study of oral contraceptive use and risk of myocardial infarction among Swedish women. J Fertil Steril 2007; 88:310-16.

Agha S. Intentions to use contraceptives in Pakistan: Implications for behavior change campaigns. J BMC Public Health 2010; 10:450.

Pakistan Population Planning Council. Pakistan Fertility Survey (First Report).Islamabad: Pakistan Population Planning Council. 1976

Ministry of Population Welfare/Population Council (1995) Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, 1994-95. Basic Findings.

Petitti DB. Clinical practice Combination estrogen-progestin oral Contraceptives. N Engl J Med 2003; 349:1443–50.

David PS, Boatwright EA, Tozer BS, Verma DP, Blair JE, Mayer AP, et al. Hormonal contraception update. J Mayo Clin Proc2006; 81:949–54.

Frempong BA, Ricks M, Sen S, Sumner AE. Effect of Low-Dose Oral Contraceptives

on Metabolic Risk Factors in African-

American Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93(6):2097–103.

Dinger JC, Heinemann LA, Kuhl-Habich D. The safety of a drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive: final results from the European Active Surveillance Study on oral contraceptives based on 142,475 women-years of observation. J Contraception

; 75:344–54.

Machado RB, De Melo NR, Maia HJ,Cruz M. Effect of a continuous regimen of contraceptive

combination of ethinylestradiol and drospirenone on lipid, carbohydrate and coagulation profiles. J Contraception 2010; 81:102-6.

Endrikat J, Klipping C, Cronin M, Gerlinger C , Ruebig A , Schmidt W,et al .An open label, comparative study of the effects of a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing

micro g ethinyl estradiol and 100 microg levonorgestrel on hemostatic, lipids, and carbohydrate metabolism variables.

J Contraception 2002; 65(3):215-21.

Skouby S.O, Endrikat J, Dusterberg B, Schmidt W, Gerlinger C, Wessel J, et al. A 1-year randomized study to evaluate the effects of a dose reduction in oral contraceptives on lipids and carbohydrate metabolism. 20 microg ethinyl estradiol combined with 100 microg levonorgestrel. J Contraception2005; 71(2):111-7.

Gaspard U, Endrikat J, Desager JP, Buicu C, Gerlinger C, Heithecker R. A randomized study on the influence of oral contraceptives

containing ethinylestradiol combined with drospirenone or desogestrel on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism over a period of 13 cycles.J Contraception 2004; 69(4): 271-8.

Nooyens AC, Visscher TL, Verschuren WM, Schuit AJ, Boshuizen HC,van Mechelen

W, et al. Age, period and cohort effects on body weight and body mass index in adults the Doetinchem Cohort Study. J Public Health Nutr 2009; 12:862–70.

Lindh I, Ellstrom AA, Milsom I. The long-term influence of combined oral contraceptives

on body weight. J Hum Reprod 2011; 26(7): 1917-24.

Godsland IF, Crook D, Wynn V . Clinical and metabolic considerations of long-term oral contraceptive use. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 166:1955-63.

Obisesan KA, Adenaike FA, Okunlola MA, Adenaike AA. Effect of oral contraceptives on total serum proteins, albumin, globulin and cholesterol levels in Ibadan, Nageria. West Afr J Med 2002; 21:197-9.

Emokpae MA,Uadia PO, Osadolor HB. Effect of duration of use of hormonal contraceptive on total lipid and lipoprotein in Nigerian women. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2010; 1(3):1-5.

Berenson AB, Rahman M, Wilkinson G. Effect of injectable and oral contraceptives on serum lipids. J Obstet Gynecol 2009; 114(4):786-94.

Ulla MA, Anttilat M, Mäenpää-Liukko K, Maija-Liisa R, Rautiainen H, Sommer WF, et al. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol compared with one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol

on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate

metabolism. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2011; 16(6): 444–57.

Naz F, Jyoti F, Afzal M, Siddiqe YHBiochemical

effect of oral contraceptives among users: A Review.Int j pharmacol2012: 8(5):314-20

Beksinska ME, Smit JA, Kleinschmidt I, Milford C, Farley TM. Prospective study of weight change in new adolescent users of DMPA, NET-EN,COCs, nonusers and discontinuers of hormonal contraception. J Contraception 2010; 81(1):30-4.

Nicholas M, Robinson G, Bounds W, Newman B, Guillebaud J.Effect of four combined oral contraceptives on blood pressure in pill free interval. J Contraception 1993; 47(4):367-76.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>