Main Article Content

Rubina Nazli
Tasleem Akhtar
Muhammad Akmal Khan
Ghosia Lutfullah
jamila haider
Hina Aslam



 OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity, its risk factors, and association with different diseases in the rural females of Peshawar.

METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 on 2296 non-pregnant women age 15-70 years. Overweight/obesity was defined as a BMI (body mass index) of > 23 kg/m2 and obesity as BMI > 27 kg/m2. Results are presented as mean+ SD, %ages & odd ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) by using EPI-Info 6.0.

RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 1226 (53.4%) and 619 (26.9%) respectively. Out of 2296 women, 2054 (89.5%) were married females. Obesity was increasing with age. Hypertension and diabetes was three times more prevalent in overweight and obese women as 3.67 (2.62-5.16) p<0.0001 and 3.77 (1.73-8.46) p<0.0002 respectively as compared to non obese female. Married women, parity > 5 and low income were significantly associated as 3.46 (2.52-4.77) p<0.0001, 1.77 (1.42-2.20) p<0.0001 and 2.99 (2.22-4.03) p<0.0001 respectively with increased risk of obesity. More health problems were reported by the obese women

CONCLUSION: Obesity among women is a serious problem in this region. Marriage, parity, ageing are responsible for high prevalence of obesity that resulted in high frequency of diseases especially hyperten­sion and diabetes in the female population.

KEY WORDS: Body mass index; Overweight / Obesity; Rural women; Peshawar-Pakistan.

Article Details

How to Cite
Original Articles
Author Biographies

Rubina Nazli, Biochemistry Deptt.Institute of Basic Medical Sciences KMU

Dr.Rubina Nazli Associate Professor Biochemistry Deptt.Institute of Basic Medical Sciences KMU

Tasleem Akhtar, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Shringarh Upper Dir KPK Pakistan.

Associate Professor Chemistry

Muhammad Akmal Khan, HMC Peshawar

Psychiatry Department

Ghosia Lutfullah, Department of Biotechnology & Microbiology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

Professor Biochemistry


1. Janus ED, Laatikainen T, Dunbar JA, Kilk¬kinen A, Bunker SJ, Philpot B, et al. Over¬weight, obesity and metabolic syndrome in rural southeastern Australia. Med J Aust 2007; 187:147-52.
2. Shah SM, D Nanan, Rahbar MH, Rahim M, Nowshad G. Assessing obesity and overweight in a high mountain Pakistani population. Trop Med Int Health 2004; 9: 526–32.
3. Agirbasli M, Tanrikulu B, Arikan S, Izci E, Ozguven S, Besimoglu B, et al. Trends in body mass index, blood pressure and parental smoking habits in middle so¬cio-economic level Turkish adolescents. J Hum Hypertens 2008 ; 22: 12-7.
4. Jafar TH, Chaturvedi N, Pappas G. Preva¬lence of overweight and obesity and their association with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in an Indo-Asian population. CMAJ 2006; 175:1071-7.
5. Nakamura K, Okamura T, Hayakawa T, Hozawa A, Kadowaki T, Murakami Y, et al. The proportion of individuals with obesity-induced hypertension among total hypertensives in a general Japanese population: NIPPON DATA 80, 90. Eur J Epidemiol. 2007; 22: 691-8.
6. Seidell JC. Obesity in Europe: scaling an epidemic. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995; 19: 1–4.
7. WHO: Obesity: Preventing and Manag¬ing the Global Epidemic. WHO Obesity Technical Report Series 894, WHO 2000, Geneva.
8. Friedrich MJ. Epidemic of obesity expands its spread to developing countries. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 287:1382-6.
9. Galal OM, Hulett J. Obesity among school¬children in developing countries. Food Nutr Bull 2005; 26: S261-6.
10. Schiel R, Beltschikow W, Kramer G, Stein G. Overweight, obesity and elevated blood pressure in children and adoles-cents. Eur J Med Res 2006; 11: 97-101.
11. James WP, Ralph A. New understanding in obesity research. Proc Nutr Soc 1999; 58: 385 – 93.
12. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; 22: 39– 47.
13. Informe Comite´ de Expertos de la OMS. El estado fý´sico: uso einterpretacio´n de la antropometrý´a. Informe Te´cnico no. 854. Ginebra: OMS; 1995.
14 . W HO( 2 0 03) Diet Nutrit on and t hePrevent i ono Chr nicDisease s .R eport of a Joint WHO/F A OExper t Co s ultati on. [C ite on 31 De ember2003]. Av ilable a tU L: http://ww .who.i t/hpr/NPH do s/wh _fao_expert_report.pdf
1 5.Deurenb erg-Yap M ,Schmid tG, Van Stav ¬ere WA, Deurenbe rgP . Th paradox o fl wbo ymass inde and h ighbody fat per ent age among Chi ese Mala sand I ndian in S ngap re.I tJ O esRelat Met bDiso d.2000; 2 :1011- 7 .
16 Reddy KS Ca diovascula dis a ein n on-Wes tern co ntries. N Engl J Med. 2004; 35 0:2 38-40
17. C hooV. WHO reasse sesappr pr atebody-mas index for As a popu a ions Lance 2002 ;360: 235 .
18 Worl He lth O rganisatio ,Internatio alAss ocia ionfo the S tudyo Obesity, Inte nation lObes tyTa kFor ce. T heAs ia- Pacific P e rspecti ve:Re efi n ng ob e¬sity a dits treatment Sydney: H ealthCommu ica ions,2000.
19. Cappuccio FP, Micah FB, Emmett L, Kerry SM A ntwiS, Martin-Pepra R ,et al.
20. Pr val nce detection, m anageme t,and c ntrolof hyperten ionin Ash nti,West A ric .Hype ten ion200 ;4 :1017 22.
2 1.Wor dH althOrg anizat on In ern ati nalsociety o hypertensi nguidelines f ort emanage en of hypertensi n. J Hyperten 1999 17: 151- 8 3.
22. Gupta R. Trends i nhypertensi one pide¬m ologyi India. J Hum Hyp rtens.2004; 18 73-8.
23 Co wellJA. Hot to ics:Diabet s.I dia Elsevier, 2 04
24. Mbanya JCN, M i koulouEM, S alahJ , Ba kauB The p rev lence o fh perten io in rural and ur anCameroon. In J E ide¬mi l 199 ;27:181-5.
2 5.Kha A, H aqF U, Per ezMB, Sa ehe nD, Frossard P M,Ishaq M, H akeemA Sheikh HT, A hmadU .An hropom tric c orrelates o fbl odpre sur in norm ¬t nsi ePakistani s ub ects.Int J Car io 2008; 124: 259-62
26. Martý´ nez- Ro 1MT, Tormo MJ,Nava roC ,Chi rl que M D,Pe ´re -Fl res D .Ex¬tr mel y high prev ale n ceof over eig h tand o es tyin Mu ci ,a Medi err neanr gi nin south-east S ain.Int J of Obe ity. 2 01;25: 13 2– 8 0.
27. Gutie´rr z-Fisac JL , Regidor E, Rodr ´ ¬guez C. E onomi and s ocialfa cto sasso¬ciat edwi hbo ymass i nde and obes ty i nthe Spani hpo ulationaged 20 – 64 y. Eur J Publi Heal h.1995; 5: 1 3– 8 .
28. Rissan nAM Heliova ra M ,Knekt P , R e unanenA, Aroma A. Dete mi antsof weig tgain a dov r ei htin adul Finns Eur J Clin Nutr . 19 1;45: 4 19– 30 .
29. D ewn wskiA, P o pk nBM. T he nutr ti ntransit on: n ewtren sin glob ldiet. Nu¬tr tion Revie s199 ;55: 3 –43
30. Gopa an C .Ob sityin t eIndian urb n‘mi dl c as ’. N FIB l etin19 8;1: 1-5
31. Ma to ell R , K ha nLK Hughes ML , Gru mer-Strawn L M. O besit in w omenfrom d ev loping c ou tries.Eur J Cl nN tr 2000 54: 2 7–5 .