Main Article Content

Rizwan Abid


OBJECTIVE: To compare the association of low physical activity with high body mass index (BMI) in both genders, at divisional headquarter Hospital Mirpur.

METHODOLOGY: This prospective open label study was conducted from 01-01-202 to 31-12-2012 on 179 consecutive patients at cardiology OPD DHQ teaching hospital Mohiuddin Islamic college Azad Kashmir. Data regarding age, sex, BMI, physical activity, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolemia were collected and analysis by SPSS 16.0.

RESULTS: Mean age was 56.17+13.591 years. Out of 179 individuals, 53(29.6%) were over-weight (males=24/66; 36.4% and females 29/113; 25.7%), while 49(27.4%) were obese (male=16/66; 24.2% and females=33/113; 29.2%). Overall, sedentary life style was prevalent and 105 (58.7%) subjects were having no or low physical activity in routine daily life. Medium physical activity was observed in 34.8% of male and 39.8% of female subjects (p>0.05). Mean BMI was 26.86+5.46 (26.94+5.843 in males & 26.82+5.250 in females; p>0.05). Mean BMI was 28.40+5.684, 27.10+4.791 and 26.17+4.697 in subjects with no physical activity, low physical activity and medium physical activity respectively (p<0.001). Lack of physical activity was significantly associated with high BMI. Pearson correlation was –0.275 for BMI and physical activity (p<0.01). Out of 105 subjects having no or low physical activity, 66 (62.9%) were having above normal BMI.

CONCLUSIONS: Low physical activity can lead to obesity in both genders and there is no difference in terms of genders.  Physical activity should be encouraged in both genders to avoid obesity related complications.  BMI should be measured routinely particularly in sedentary and physically inactive individuals.

Article Details

How to Cite
Original Articles
Author Biography

Rizwan Abid, Asstt Professor Cardiology DHQ teaching hospital,Kashmir Institute of Cardiology Mirpur Azad Kashmir.





1. Fogelholm M. Physical activity, fitness and fatness: relations to mortality, morbidity and disease risk factors. A systematic review. Obesity reviews. 2010;11(3):202-21.

2. Kenchaiah S, Sesso HD, Gaziano JM. Body mass index and vigorous physical activity and the risk of heart failure among men. Circulation. 2009;119(1):44-52.

3. Lakoski SG, Barlow CE, Farrell SW, Berry JD, Morrow JR, Haskell WL. Impact of body mass index, physical activity, and other clinical factors on cardiorespiratory fitness (from the Cooper Center longitudinal study). The American journal of cardiology. 2011;108(1):34-9.

4. Hamer M, Brunner E, Bell J, Batty G, Shipley M, Akbaraly T, et al. Physical activity patterns over 10 years in relation to body mass index and waist circumference: The Whitehall II cohort study. Obesity. 2013.

5. Consultation WE. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;363(9403):157.

6. Stefanov, Tsvetan, et al. "Association of physical activity with insulin resistance, subclinical inflammation, coagulation, and fibrinolytic biomarkers among population at high risk for type 2 diabetes." (2012): 32-39.

7. Mitchell, J. A., et al. "Moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity is associated with decreases in body mass index from ages 9 to 15 years." Obesity (2012).

8. Grundvold, Irene, et al. "Importance of Physical Fitness on Predictive Effect of Body Mass Index and Weight Gain on Incident Atrial Fibrillation in Healthy Middle-Age Men." The American journal of cardiology (2012).

9. Hamer, M., et al. "Physical activity patterns over 10 years in relation to body mass index and waist circumference: The Whitehall II cohort study." Obesity(2013).

10. Coutinho, Thais, et al. "Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary DiseaseRole of “Normal Weight Central Obesity”." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 61.5 (2013): 553-560.

11. Silva, Diego Augusto Santos, Edio Luiz Petroski, and Marco Aurelio Peres. "Is high body fat estimated by body mass index and waist circumference a predictor of hypertension in adults? A population-based study." Nutrition journal11.1 (2012): 112.

12. Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair, et al. "Dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children."International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 8.1 (2011): 1-13.

13. Nair, Manisha, and Dorairaj Prabhakaran. "Why Do South Asians Have High Risk for CAD?." Global Heart (2012).

14. Rehman, Rehana, et al. "Relationship Of Life Style Choices On Body Fat Mass In Young Adults." J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 22.4 (2010).
15. Qureshi, Shamim A., et al. "Most Prevalent Diseases with Relation of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Karachi, Pakistan." EDITORIAL BOARD 5 (2011): 85.

16. Karim, Md N., et al. "Pattern and predictors of dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus." Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews (2013).

17. Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair, et al. "Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children." BMC Public Health 11.1 (2011): 724.

18. Marinda, Fourie, et al. "Effects of a mat pilates program on cardiometabolicparameters in elderly women." Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 29.2 (2013).

19. Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair, et al. "Family-based factors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children." BMC pediatrics 11.1 (2011): 114.

20. Ahmad, Madiha, et al. "Prevalence Of Various Components Of Metabolic Syndrome In Our Younger Population." Pak J Physiol7.2 (2011).

21. Humayun, Anjum, Arbab Sher Shah, and Riffat Sultana. "Relation of hypertension with body mass index and age in male and female population of Peshwar, Pakistan." J Ayu b Med Coll Abbottabad 21.3 (2009): 63-65

22. Koster, Annemarie, et al. "Association of sedentary time with mortality independent of moderate to vigorous physical activity." PLoS One 7.6 (2012): e37696.

23. Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, et al. "Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults." New England Journal of Medicine 363.23 (2010): 2211-2219.

24. Ärnlöv, Johan, et al. "Impact of body mass index and the metabolic syndrome on the risk of cardiovascular disease and death in middle-aged men."Circulation 121.2 (2010): 230-236.

25. Assessing Adiposity : A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
Circulation. 2011;124:1996-2019

26. Norton, Kevin, Lynda Norton, and Daryl Sadgrove. "Position statement on physical activity and exercise intensity terminology." Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 13.5 (2010): 496-502.
27Kokkinos, Peter, and Jonathan Myers. "Exercise and Physical Activity Clinical Outcomes and
Applications." Circulation 122.16 (2010): 1637-1648.
28Lee, I-Min. "Physical activity and cardiac protection." Current sports medicine reports 9.4 (2010): 214-219.