EARLY INITIATION OF BREAST FEEDING AMONG CHILDREN 0-23 MONTHS OF AGE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN DISTRICT CHARSADDA, PAKISTAN

Main Article Content

Ayesha Imtiaz
Zia ul Haq
Naveed Sadiq
Sheraz Fazid

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the practice of Early Initiation of Breast Feeding (EIBF) and associated factors among mothers of children 0-23 months of age in district Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
METHODS: This study was part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Integrated Population Health Survey (KPIPHS), 2016-17 and included data of 36 union councils of district Charsadda. Women having children >2 years of age (n=357) were selected through multistage stratified-cluster random sampling. Data was collected using validated structured questionnaire. Association of breastfeeding practices was analyzed against a set of demographic variables through multivariable logistic regression analysis, using STATA-15
RESULTS: Out of 357, 211 (59.10%) children were breastfed within first hour after birth. Mean age of the mothers was 35.1±9.35 years. About 49.58% (n=177) of mothers were aging 26-35 years, 63% (n=225) were rural residents, and 50.42% (n=180) were uneducated. In EIBF children, mothers between 26-35 years (n=115; 54.4%), uneducated (n=93; 44%), and residents of rural areas (n=148: 70%) had a significant association (p=≤0.05). In multivariable adjusted model, mothers between 26-35 years (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-2.9; p=0.025) and those living in rural areas (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3-3.5; p=0.002) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding earlier as compared to those living in urban areas and above 35 years of age after adjusting for other covariates.
CONCLUSION: More than half of the children under two years at district Charsadda were breastfed within first hour after birth. Residence, maternal age group, and school education had a strong association with EIBF.

Article Details

How to Cite
Imtiaz, A., Z. ul Haq, N. Sadiq, and S. Fazid. “EARLY INITIATION OF BREAST FEEDING AMONG CHILDREN 0-23 MONTHS OF AGE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN DISTRICT CHARSADDA, PAKISTAN”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, Vol. 12, no. 2, June 2020, pp. 95-101, doi:10.35845/kmuj.2020.19768.
Section
Original Articles

References

1. World Health Organization (WHO). Infant and young child feeding. 2018. [Accessed on: January 01, 2019]. Available from URL: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/infant-and-young-child-feeding.
2. World Health Organization (WHO). Malnutrition: Fact sheet. 2019. [Accessed on: January 03, 2019]. Available from URL: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malnutrition.
3. Global database on the implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA). Pakistan Infant and Young Child Feeding Strategy, 2016- 2020. 2015. [Accessed on: January 03, 2019]. Available from URL: https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/sites/default/files/PAK-Infant%20and%20Young%20Child%20Feeding%20Strategy_%202015%20Final.pdf
4. World Health Organization (WHO). Infant and young child feeding: Model Chapter for textbooks for medical students and allied health professionals.2009. [Accessed on: January 03, 2019]. Available from URL: https://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/9789241597494/en/.
5. National Institute of Population Studies (NIPS) and ICF. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18. 2019. [Accessed on: January 03, 2019]. Available from URL: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR354/FR354.pdf.
6. Imran M, Jabeen N, Khatoon S. Feeding practices of infants and young children according to whom Indicators at Children Hospital, Islamabad. Pak J Med Health Sci 2017;11(1): 215-19.
7. Sharma A, Thakur PS, Tiwari R, Kasar PK, Sharma R, Kabirpanthi V. Factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding among mothers of tribal area of Madhya Pradesh, India: a community based cross sectional study. Int J Community Med Public Health 2017;3(1):194–9. DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20151561.
8. Khan GN, Ariff S, Khan U, Habib A, Umer M, Suhag Z, et al. Determinants of infant and young child feeding practices by mothers in two rural districts of Sindh, Pakistan: A cross-sectional survey. Int Breastfeed J 2017;12:40. DOI: 10.1186/s13006-017-0131-z.
9. Khanal V, Scott JA, Lee AH, Karkee R, Binns CW. Factors associated with Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Western Nepal. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015;12(8):9562-74. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph120809562.
10. Zafar M, Fatmi Z, Shafi K. Determinants of child feeding practices in Pakistan; secondary data analysis of demographic and health survey 2006-07. J Med Nutr Nutraceuticals 2014;3(2):198. DOI: 10.4103/2278-019X.131958.
11. Ul-Haq Z, Fazid S, Sultana N, Hisam A, Shah BH, Arif N, et al. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Integrated Population Health Survey (KP-IPHS) 2016-17. Khyber Med Univ J 2019;11(4):254-7. DOI: 10.35845/kmuj.2019.19423.
12. World Health Organization (WHO) .Complementary feeding. 2019. [Accessed on: January 03, 2019]. Available from URL: http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/complementary_feeding/en/.
13. Nutrition Wing, Ministry of Health Services, Regulation and Coordination. National Nutrition Survey 2018: Key findings Report. 2018. [Accessed on: January 03, 2019]. Available from URL: https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/sites/unicef.org.pakistan/files/2019-07/Final%20Key%20Findings%20Report%202019%20%281%29.pdf.
14. Mihrshahi S, Kabir I, Roy SK, Agho KE, Senarath U, Dibley MJ. Determinants of infant and young child feeding practices in Bangladesh: secondary data analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Food Nutr Bull 2010;31(2):295-313. DOI: 10.1177/156482651003100220.
15. El-Gilany AH, Sarraf B, Al-Wehady A. Factors associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding in Al-Hassa province, Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J 2012;18(3):250–4. DOI: 10.26719/2012.18.3.250
16. National Institute of Population Studies (NIPS) and ICF International. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13.2013. [Accessed on: January 03, 2019]. Available from URL: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR290/FR290.pdf
17. Hailemariam TW, Adeba E, Sufa A. Predictors of early breastfeeding initiation among mothers of children under 24 months of age in rural part of West Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2015;15(2015):1076. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2420-z.
18. Atyeo NN, Frank TD, Vail EF, Sperduto WAL, Boyd DL. Early Initiation of Breastfeeding Among Maya Mothers in the Western Highlands of Guatemala: Practices and Beliefs. J Hum Lact 2017;33(4):781‐9. DOI: 10.1177/0890334416682729.
19. Senarath U, Dibley MJ, Agho KE. Factors associated with nonexclusive breastfeeding in 5 east and southeast Asian countries: a multilevel analysis. J Hum Lact 2010;26(3):248–57. DOI: 10.1177/0890334409357562.
20. Fisher J, Hammarberg K, Wynter K, McBain J, Gibson F, Boivin J, et al. Assisted conception, maternal age and breastfeeding: an Australian cohort study. Acta Paediatr 2013;102(10):970–6. DOI: 10.1111/apa.12336.
21. Ekubay M., Berhe A., Yisma E. Initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth among mothers with infants younger than or equal to 6 months of age attending public health institutions in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Intl Breastfeed J 2018;13:4 DOI: 10.1186/s13006-018-0146-0. eCollection 2018.
22. Kitano N, Nomura K, Kido M, Murakami K, Ohkubo T, Ueno M, et al. Combined effects of maternal age and parity on successful initiation of exclusive breastfeeding. Prev Med Rep 2015;3:121–6. DOI: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.12.010
23. Karim F, Billah S.M, Chowdhury MAK, Zaka N, Manu A, Arifeen SE, et al. Initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth and its determinants among normal vaginal deliveries at primary and secondary health facilities in Bangladesh: A case-observation study. PLoS ONE 2018;13(8):e0202508. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202508.
24. Ahmed AE., Salih OA. Determinants of the early initiation of breastfeeding in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Int Breastfeed J 2019;14:13. DOI: 10.1186/s13006-019-0207-z.
25. Patel A, Banerjee A, Kaletwad A. Factors associated with prelacteal feeding and timely initiation of breastfeeding in hospital-delivered infants in India. J Hum Lact 2013;29(4):572–8. DOI: 10.1177/0890334412474718.
26. Liben ML, Yesuf EM. Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Amibara district, Northeastern Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study. Int Breastfeed J 2016;11:7. DOI: 10.1186/s13006-016-0067-8.
27. Mukunya D, Tumwine JK, Nankabirwa V, Ndeezi G, Odongo I, Tumuhamye J, et al. Factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding: a survey in Northern Uganda. Global Health Action 2017;10(1). DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2017.1410975.
28. Hazir T, Akram D-S, Nisar YB, Kazmi N, Agho KE, Abbasi S et al. Determinants of suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan. Public Health Nutr 2012;16(4):659–72. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980012002935.
29. Dean AG, Sullivan KM, Soe MM. OpenEpi: Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health, Version, www.OpenEpi.com, updated 2013/04/06. [Accessed on: January 03, 2019] Available from URL: https://www.openepi.com/Menu/OE_Menu.htm.