Prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among undergraduate nursing students amid covid-19: a mixed-method study

Main Article Content

Nadia Noreen
Rozina Karamaliani
Lubna Ghazal
Fauzia Basaria Hasnani
Syeda Humera
Muhammad Abdullah


OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among undergraduate nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic and identify associated factors.

METHODS: This study employed a concurrent mixed methodology, comprising a quantitative analytical cross-sectional web-based survey and a qualitative descriptive exploratory study using focus group discussions. The study was conducted at two university-based schools of nursing, one public and one private, in Karachi, Pakistan, from May to September 2021, during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Two questionnaires were employed: the Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale and COVID-19 related stressors.

RESULTS: Among the study participants (n=300) 74%, were female. The 76.3% individuals’ age between 20 to 29 years and 97.3% were single. The study reported 51% prevalence of anxiety and depression in COVID-19 were associated with females (OR=2.56, 95%CI:1.34-4.88), hostel residents (OR=1.9, 95%CI:1.02-3.52), final year students (OR=1.36, 95% CI:1.002-1.870), e-learning (OR=1.74, 95%CI: 1.28-2.37), and those who had COVID-19 academic apprehensions and transition as future nurses (OR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.0-1.29). The qualitative analysis highlighted the theme, the realities of students' academic life amid COVID-19. This theme was emerged from three categories, lack of preparedness, range of emotions and humble submissions.  

CONCLUSION: This study revealed a high prevalence (51%) of anxiety and depression among nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among females, hostel residents, and final-year students. Qualitative analysis highlighted challenges in academic adaptation amid COVID-19, revealing themes of lack of preparedness, a range of emotions, and humble submissions, stressing the need for targeted interventions and support systems.

Article Details

How to Cite
Noreen, N., R. Karamaliani, L. Ghazal, F. B. Hasnani, S. Humera, and M. Abdullah. “Prevalence and Factors Associated With Anxiety and Depression Among Undergraduate Nursing Students Amid Covid-19: A Mixed-Method Study”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, vol. 16, no. 1, Mar. 2024, pp. 52-60, doi:10.35845/kmuj.2024.23472.
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