Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in patients receiving fixed orthodontic treatment

Main Article Content

Aneela Nausheen
Sheraz Fazid
Umar Hussain
Zia Ul Haq


OBJECTIVE: To determine Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in patients receiving fixed orthodontic treatment

METHODS: This study was conducted at department of Orthodontics, Khyber College of Dentistry, Peshawar from 24th March 2022 to 30th June 2022. One hundred and seventy-five patients, undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy for at least three months were included in the study. Patients with oral diseases that directly or indirectly affect OHRQoL, any previous orthodontic treatment, cognitive impairment and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. The OHRQoL was recorded using Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) questionnaire. Independent samples t-test was used to examine the relationship between age and gender with total OHIP-14 score. Comparison of OHIP-14 score among socioeconomic levels and educational level was done using one way ANOVA.

RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 23.13±5.25 years, OHIP-14 score was 29.48±7.36 and 56% (n=98) were females. No significant difference was found between gender, age of the participants, socioeconomic status (SES) and the OHIP-14 score (p=0.05). Highest mean OHIP-14 score was found in ‘higher educational level’ followed by intermediate then secondary school and least in primary education level and it was very highly statistically significant (ANOVA test, p<0.001). Participants had negative effect on pronouncing words (47%), physical pain (88%), and psychological discomfort and social disability (94%).

CONCLUSION: Fixed orthodontic appliances significantly impact participants' QoL, with educational level varying, while gender, age, and SES showed no significant effect on OHIP-14 scores. Functional limitations, physical pain, psychological discomfort, and social challenges were prominent domains affected by orthodontic treatment.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nausheen, A., S. Fazid, U. Hussain, and Z. U. Haq. “Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Receiving Fixed Orthodontic Treatment”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, vol. 16, no. 2, June 2024, doi:10.35845/kmuj.2024.23340.
Original Articles


Gift HC, Redford M. Oral health and the quality of life. Clin Geriatric Med 1992;8(3):673-84.

Bedi R, Gulati N, McGrath C. A study of satisfaction with dental services among adults in the United Kingdom. Br Dent J 2005;198(7):433-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.4812198

Borzabadi-Farahani A, Borzabadi-Farahani A. Agreement between the index of complexity, outcome, and need and the dental and aesthetic components of the index of orthodontic treatment need. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011;140:233-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2010.09.028

Badran SA. The effect of malocclusion and self-perceived aesthetics on the self-esteem of a sample of Jordanian adolescents. Eur J Orthod 2010;32(6):638-44. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjq014

O’Brien K, Kay L, Fox D, Mandall N, Assessing oral health outcomes for orthodontics–measuring health status and quality of life. Community Dent Health 1998;15:22-6.

de Oliveira CM, Sheiham A. Orthodontic treatment and its impact on oral health-related quality of life in Brazilian adolescents. J Orthod 2004;31(1):20-7. https://doi.org/10.1179/146531204225011364.

Prabakaran R, Seymour S, Moles DR, Cunningham SJ. Motivation for orthodontic treatment investigated with Q-methodology: patients’ and parents’ perspectives. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012;142(2):213-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2012.03.026

Phillips C, Broder HL, Bennett ME. Dentofacial disharmony: motivations for seeking treatment. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg 1997;12(1):7.

Kenealy PM, Kingdon A, Richmond S, Shaw WC. The Cardiff dental study: a 20-year critical evaluation of the psychological health gain from orthodontic treatment. Br J Health Psychol 2007;12:17-49. https://doi.org//10.1348/135910706X96896

Revicki DA, Kleinman L, Cella D. A history of health-related quality of life outcomes in psychiatry. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2014;16:127-35. https://doi.org/10.31887/DCNS.2014.16.2/drevicki

Hays RD, Reeve BB. Measurement and modeling of health-related quality of life. Int Encyclopedia Public Health 2008:241-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012373960-5.00336-1

Liu Z, McGrath C, Hagg U. The impact of malocclusion/orthodontic treatment need on the quality of life: a systematic review. Angle Orthod 2009;79:585-91. https://doi.org/10.2319/042108-224.1

Slade GD, Spencer AJ. Development and evaluation of the oral health impact profile. Comm Dent Health 2004;11:3-11.

Feu D, Miguel JAM, Celeste RK, Oliveira BH. Effect of orthodontic treatment on oral health–related quality of life. Angle Orthod 2013;83(5):892-8. https://doi.org/10.2319/100412-781.1

Machale P , Hegde-Shetiya S, Shirahatti R , Agarwal D. Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) amongst Patients Wearing Fixed Orthodontic Appliance in Pimpri, Pune, India - A Cross Sectional Study. Pesqui Bras Odontopediatria Clin Integr 2012;12(3):351-6.

Subohi A. Defining income groups. Dawn. 20 November 2006. Accessed on: May 25, 2022. Available from URL: https://www.dawn.com/news/219652/defining-income-groups

Johal A, Fleming P, Al Jawad F. A prospective longitudinal controlled assessment of pain experience and oral health-related quality of life in adolescents undergoing fixed appliance treatment. Orthod Craniofac Res 2014;17(3):178-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/ocr.12044

Paes da Silva S, Pitchika V, Baumert U, Wehrbein H, Schwestka-Polly R, Drescher D, et al. Oral health-related quality of life in orthodontics: a cross-sectional multicentre study on patients in orthodontic treatment. Eur J Orthod 2020;42(3):270-80. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjz064

Chen M, Wang DW, Wu LP. Fixed orthodontic appliance therapy and its impact on oral health-related quality of life in Chinese patients. Angle Orthod 2010;80(1):49-53. https://doi.org/10.2319/010509-9.1

Baidas LF, AlJunaydil N, Demyati M, Sheryei RA. Fixed orthodontic appliance impact on oral health-related quality of life during initial stages of treatment. Niger J Clin Pract 2020;23(9):1207-14. https://doi.org/10.4103/njcp.njcp_681_19

Mansor N, Saub R, Othman SA. Changes in the oral health-related quality of life 24 h following insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances. J Orthod Sci 2012;1(4):98. https://doi.org/10.4103/2278-0203.105880

Scheurer PA, Firestone AR, Burgin WB. Perception of pain as a result of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Eur J Orthod 1996;18:34957. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejo/18.4.349

Broder HL, Wilson-Genderson M, Sischo L. Examination of a theoretical model for oral health–related quality of life among youths with cleft. Am J Public Health 2014;104(5):865-71. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301686

Feu D, Miguel JAM, Celeste RK, Oliveira BH. Effect of orthodontic treatment on oral health–related quality of life. Angle Orthod 2013;83(5):892-8. https://doi.org/10.2319/100412-781.1

Kvam E, Gjerdet N, Bondevik O. Traumatic ulcers and pain during orthodontic treatment. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1987;15:104-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.1987.tb00493.x

McGrath C, Bedi R. Gender variations in the social impact of oral health. J Ir Dent Assoc 2000;46:87-91.