DOSE DEPENDENT EFFECT OF GLYCYRRHIZIN ON GLYCAEMIC CONTROL OF TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS

Main Article Content

Mufakhara Fatimah
Mahwash Malik
Sidra Mushtaq
Javeria Sarfraz
Zobia Mushtaq
Sadia Chiragh

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of low and high dose of glycyrrhizin on body weight, fasting blood sugar level (FBSL), serum insulin and glycemic indices in high fat diet induced type 2 diabetic rats.


METHODS: In this experimental study with intervention period of 34 weeks, rats were grouped into four experimental groups; Group-A: normal control; Group-B: diabetic control; Group-C: glycyrrhizin-150 and Group-D: glycyrrhizin-300. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by giving high fat diet with injection dexamethasone. At 32 weeks, body weight, FBSL, serum insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), Homeostatic Model Assessment of beta cells (HOMA-β) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) were estimated. Two experimental groups received glycyrrhizin 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg per oral per day till completion of 34 weeks in addition to the high fat diet. At 34 weeks all the parameters were re-estimated.


RESULTS: It was observed that both doses of glycyrrhizin significantly reduced FBSL and insulin levels in group-C (95.00±8.23 mg/dl, 671.60±55.51 µIU/ml) and group-D (94.00±6.27 mg/dl, 675.00±44.96 µIU/ml) as compared to group-B (236.10±13.26 mg/dl, 1052.80±37.82 µIU/ml) [p-value<0.001] at 34 weeks. HOMA-IR decreased [group-C (157.62±19.39) and group-D (157.03±18.21) vs group-B (613.79±49.91)] whereas HOMA-β [group-C (2498.23±299.58) and group-D (2526.24±150.65) vs group-B (1546.87±106.81)] and QUICKI increased [group-C (0.208±0.00) and group-D (0.208±0.002) vs group-B (0.185±0.001)] (P-value<0.001). Body weight decreased insignificantly in group-C (344.00±30.21mg) (P-value>0.05) but significantly in group-D (293.20±42.54) as compared to group-B (372.00±24.03) [P-value<0.001].


CONCLUSION: Glycyrrhizin effectively improves glycaemic control in rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Article Details

How to Cite
Fatimah, M., M. Malik, S. Mushtaq, J. Sarfraz, Z. Mushtaq, and S. Chiragh. “DOSE DEPENDENT EFFECT OF GLYCYRRHIZIN ON GLYCAEMIC CONTROL OF TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, Vol. 12, no. 2, June 2020, pp. 121-5, doi:10.35845/kmuj.2020.19819.
Section
Original Articles

References

1. Lardizabal JA, Deedwani PC. The role of renin-angiotensin agents in altering the natural history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Cardiol Rep 2010;12(6):464–71. DOI: 10.1007/s11886-010-0138-1.
2. Zaccardi F, Webb DR, Yates T, Davies MJ. Pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 90-year perspective. Postgrad Med J 2016; 92(1084):63-9. DOI: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2015-133281.
3. Aamir AH, Ul-Haq Z, Mahar SA, Qureshi FM, Ahmad I, Jawa A, et al. Diabetes Prevalence Survey of Pakistan (DPS-PAK): prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes using HbA1c: a population-based survey from Pakistan. BMJ Open 2019;9:e025300. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025300
4. Zia A, Bhatti A, Jalil F, Wang X, John P, Kiani AK, et al. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes–associated complications in Pakistan. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 2016;36(2):179–88. DOI: 10.1007/s13410-015-0380-6.
5. Martha SNK, Umesh M. Pancreatic hormones and antidiabetic drugs. In: Bertam GK, Anthony JT (eds). Basic and clinical pharmacology.13th ed. McGraw Hill Education (India); 2013.pp.723-46.
6. Marjan NA, Hossein H. Review of pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza sp. and its bioactive compounds. Phytother Res 2008; 22(6): 709-24. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2362.
7. Sen S, Roy M, Chakraborti AS. Ameliorative effect of glycyrrhizin on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2011;63(2):287-96. DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2010.01217.x.
8. Kalaiarasi P, Pugalendi KV. Protective effect of 18b-glycyrrhetinic acid on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes. J Pharm Res 2011;4(1):107-11.
9. Kalaiarasi P, Kaviarasan K, Pugalendi KV. Hypolipidemic activity of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2009;612(1-3):93-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.04.003.
10. Eu CH, Lim WY, Ton SH, Kadir KA. Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Lipids Health Dis 2010;9:81. DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-9-81.
11. Takii H, Kometani T, Nishimura T, Nakae T, Okada S, Fushiki T. Antidiabetic effect of glycyrrhizin in genetically diabetic KK- Ay mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2001;24(5):484-7. DOI: 10.1248/bpb.24.484.
12. Kacew S, Festing MF. Role of rat strain in the differential sensitivity to pharmaceutical agents and naturally occurring substances. J Toxicol Environ Health 1996;47(1):1-30. DOI: 10.1080/009841096161960-2840.
13. Shad M, Zaheer Z, Kausar S, Chiragh S. Comparative effects of losartan and pioglitazone on insulin resistance in rats. Biomedica 2014;30(3):1-5.
14. Jung JY, Lim Y, Moon MS, Kim JY, Kwon O. Onion peel extracts ameliorate hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in high fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2011;8(1):18. DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-8-18.
15. Sivabalan S, Renuka S, Menon P. Fat feeding potentiates the diabetogenic effect of dexamethasone in wistar rats. Int Arch Med 2008;1(1):7. DOI: 10.1186/1755-7682-1-7.
16. Song Y, Manson JE, Tinker L, Howard BV, Kuller LH, Nathan L, et al. Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion determined by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and risk of diabetes in a multiethnic cohort of women: The women’s health initiative observational study. Diabetes Care 2007;30(7):1747–52. DOI: 10.2337/dc07-0358.
17. Yokoyama H, Emoto M, Fujiwara S, Motoyama K, Morioka T, Komatsu M, et al. Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and the reciprocal index of homeostasis model assessment are useful indexes of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients with wide range of fasting plasma glucose. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89(3):1481-1484. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2003-031374
18. Armanini D, De Palo CB, Mattarello MJ, Spinella P, Zaccaria M, Ermolao A, et al. Effect of licorice on the reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects. J Endocrinol Invest 2003;26(7):646-50. DOI: 10.1007/BF03347023.
19. Amin A, Nagy M. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2009;1(1):17. DOI: 10.1186/1758-5996-1-17.
20. Sil R, Ray D, Chakraborti AS. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in fructose- induced metabolic syndrome-X in rat model. Ind J Exp Biol 2013;51(2):129-38.
21. Salgado AL, Carvalho LD, Oliveira AC, Santos VN, Vieira JG, Parise ER. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in the differentiation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy individuals. Arq Gastroenterol 2010;47(2):165-9. DOI: 10.1590/s0004-28032010000200009.
22. Yin CY, Ha TS, Kadir KA. Effects of glycyrrhizic acid on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) serum lipid and HOMA-IR in rats. PPAR Res 2010;2010:530265. DOI: 10.1155/2010/530265.
23. YunXia Y, Ruiyu L, Mei JJ, Yanzhuo Z, Meng L, Bin L, et al. Effects of jiang Tang Fang Long Formula on insulin production and function in an animal model of diabetic hearing loss. J Otology 2013;8(2):88-90. DOI: 10.1016/S1672-2930(13)50018-3.
24. Katz A, Nambi SS, Mather K, Baron AD, Follmann DA, Sullivan G, et al. Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index: a simple, accurate method for assessing insulin sensitivity in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85(7):2402-10. DOI: 10.1210/jcem.85.7.6661.