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OBJECTIVES: 1) To compare serum levels of regenerating islet-derived 1 alpha (Reg1α) proteins in type 1 diabetics, type 2 diabetics and controls and correlate them with their clinical/biochemical parameters.
2) To compare Reg1α levels in diabetics with and without disease complications.
METHODS: In this cross sectional comparative study, ten type 1 diabetics and thirty type 2 diabetics were recruited from Medical department of PNS Shifa hospital, Karachi. Twenty controls were selected from among friends and relatives with non diabetic background. Biochemical parameters like Fasting blood glucose (FBG), Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c), Total Cholesterol (TC) and Triglycerides (TG) were measured. Serum levels of Reg1α were analyzed using ELISA.
RESULTS: Reg1α protein levels, compared to controls were significantly higher (p <001) in both type 1 and 2 diabetics with increase more discernible in case of type 2. A decrease in the Reg1α levels was observed with increase in the duration of the disease in type 2 diabetes patients. However the levels of the protein remained significantly higher than the controls. Patients with diabetic complications had higher protein levels as compared to diabetics without complications. We observed positive correlation of Reg1α with age at onset of disease in case of type 1 diabetics (p<0.05). Patients with risk factors like high body mass index and smoking had higher protein levels.
CONCLUSION: Reg1α proteins in types 1 and 2 diabetes patients can be used as biological marker for detection of β-cell apoptosis and regeneration independently. It may be used to identify patients with disease complications.
KEY WORDS: Diabetes Mellitus (MeSH); Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated (MeSH); Blood HbA1c protein, human (MeSH); Regenerating Islet-Derived 1 alpha Protein (MeSH), Diabetes complications (MeSH)
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