Prevalence of flatfoot among children aged 5-10 years: A population-based descriptive cross-sectional study

Main Article Content

Nayab John
Farooq Islam
Asim Raza
Safa Salam


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of flatfoot among children aged 5-10 years.

METHODS: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to July 2021, involving 379 children (aged 5-10 years) in Jhelum and Gujrat districts of Pakistan. Data was collected through non-probability convenient sampling using a questionnaire.  Demographic data, including residential type, gender, age, height, weight, rear foot angle, flatfoot, injury, or pain in the lower limb were collected. The presence of flatfoot was determined using a footprint test, where inked soles were imprinted on paper as children stood.

RESULTS: Of 379 participants, 196 (51.7%) were female and 183 (49.3%) were males, with a mean age of 7.90±1.60 years. The majority (59.6%) resided in urban areas, and 53.6% had normal weight and only 12.4% were overweight. Flatfoot was prevalent in 63.9% of children, with males exhibiting a significantly higher medial arch than females. Notably, a slight positive association was observed between gender, residence, and BMI with the medial arch, although statistical significance was not reached. These findings underscore the gender-related distinctions in arch development among pediatric populations in this region.

CONCLUSION: The study revealed a 63.9% prevalence of flatfoot in children aged 5-10 years, notably higher in males with elevated medial arches. Moreover, the prevalence of flatfoot was particularly high among normal-weight children. The findings emphasize gender-related distinctions in pediatric flatfoot development, warranting further research and targeted interventions.

Article Details

How to Cite
John, N., F. Islam, A. Raza, and S. Salam. “Prevalence of Flatfoot Among Children Aged 5-10 Years: A Population-Based Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, vol. 15, no. 4, Dec. 2023, pp. 241-6, doi:10.35845/kmuj.2023.22335.
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