Main Article Content

Aniqa Khaliq
Shamaila Yaqub
Farooq Islam
Asim Raza
Aiman Batool
Sana Jamil


OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk factors associated with upper crossed syndrome (UCS) in females of age 25-50 years.

METHODS: This population based case controlled study was conducted from May to August 2019. Total of 210 females including 105 cases (participants who had upper neck pain for at least one month) and 105 controls (participants who didn't had upper neck pain), aging 25-50 years were selected through non-probability convenient sampling technique from the population of Gujrat, Punjab Pakistan. Data was collected through a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed through SPSS software (version 21.0). Universal goniometer used to assess cervical ranges. Neck disability index (NDI) was used for functional disability and visual analog scale (VAS) was applied to assess the degree of pain.

RESULTS: Majority (n=88; 41.90%) of females were in age group of 25-30 years and were housewives (n=147; 70 %). Females who used handheld devices, unsupported back chairs, read, worked, travelled for more than 3 hours had 63.91, 9.127, 3.568, 3.301, 2.068 folds risk of developing UCS respectively as compared to those who did the same for less than 3 hours. Similarly, females who were fetal sleeper had 2.032 times more risk of than front sleeper. All risk factors were statistically significant (p< 0.005).

CONCLUSION: Usage of handheld devices while reading, working, and travelling for >3 hours, sleeping with curved spine and in fetal position and unsupported back chair increase the risk of UCS.

Article Details

How to Cite
Khaliq, A., S. Yaqub, F. Islam, A. Raza, A. Batool, and S. Jamil. “RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH UPPER CROSSED SYNDROME IN FEMALES OF AGE 25-50 YEARS: A POPULATION-BASED CASE CONTROL STUDY”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, Vol. 14, no. 4, Dec. 2021, pp. 201-5, doi:10.35845/kmuj.2021.19840.
Original Articles


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