Main Article Content

Muhammad Shahab Hanif
Muhammad Saqib Baloch
Kumayl Abbas Meghji
Ali Abbas
Sana Kashif
Rida Qureshi


OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of carbaryl ingestion on morphology and histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa of albino Wistar rats.

METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, thirty Albino Wistar rats were randomly distributed into three different groups i.e. group-A (control), group-B (experimental-1) and group-C (experimental-2). The division was based on diet and quantity of drug-induced given. Group-A rats were given normal chow feed along with clean water ad libitum only, while group-B and group-C rats were given 2.5mg/kg and 5mg/kg body weight carbaryl mixed in their normal feed respectively. All rats were weighed before and after the experiment.

RESULTS: Pre-experimental total body weight (Mean±SD) of groups A, B, and C were found to be 245.7±6.1 gm, 252.3±4.5 gm, and 239±6.7 gm respectively. Group-A (Control rats) showed an increase in body weight, while a decline in body weight was observed in groups B (203.43±12.57) and C (169.29±13.72) [p-value=0.001]. Similarly, the mean stomach weights of all the experimental rats were also measured at the conclusion of the experiment and were found to be 3.81±0.20 gm (group-A), 3.22±0.29 gm (group-B) and 2.26±0.65 gm (group-C) [p-value=0.001]. Histology of gastric mucosa of group-A didnt reveal any changes. In experimental groups, localized foci of congested blood vessels and infiltration by acute inflammatory cells were observed in the basal portion of gastric glands. Normal tubular architecture of the gastric mucosal glands was distorted..

CONCLUSION: Carbaryl administration induces marked histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa with decline in the body and stomach weight of experimental groups.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hanif, M. S., M. S. Baloch, K. A. Meghji, A. Abbas, S. Kashif, and R. Qureshi. “HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE GASTRIC MUCOSA INDUCED BY CARBARYL TOXICITY: AN EXPERIMENTAL RAT MODEL”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, Vol. 12, no. 2, June 2020, pp. 137-42, doi:10.35845/kmuj.2020.19896.
Original Articles


1. Mew EJ, Padmanathan P, Konradsen F, Eddleston M, Chang S-S, Phillips MR, et al. The global burden of fatal self-poisoning with pesticides 2006-15: systematic review. J Affect Disord 2017 Sep;219:93-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.05.002.
2. AL-Gehani SA. Effect of sub chronic exposure to Malathion on hematological parameters in the quail. Glob Adv Res J Environ Sci Toxicol 2013;2:77-81.
3. Khan MI, Shoukat MA, Cheema SA, Arif HN, Niazi NK, Azam M, et al. Use, contamination and exposure of pesticides in Pakistan: a review. Pak J Agricul Sci 2020;57(1):131-49.
4. Manumati M, Mahindra N. Toxic effects of Carbaryl on the Vasculature of Liver in Adult Albino Rat, Rattus norvegicus. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol 2013;7(2):74-8. DOI: 10.5958/j.0973-9130.7.2.016.
5. Koshlukova S, Reed A. Carbaryl. In: Wexler, P.(Ed)., Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 3rd edition, vol 1. Elsevier Inc., Academic Press, pp.668-672. 2014.
6. Saad M, Shams D, Khan W, Ijaz A, Qasim M. Occurrence of selected pesticides and pcps in surface water receiving untreated discharge in Pakistan. J Environ Anal Toxicol 2017;7(500):2161-0525.1000500. DOI: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000500.
7. Wang J-h, Zhu L-s, Liu W, Wang J, Xie H. Biochemical responses of earthworm (Eisenia foetida) to the pesticides chlorpyrifos and fenvalerate. Toxicol Mech Methods 2012 Apr;22(3):236-41. DOI: 10.3109/15376516.2011.640718.
8. Anguiano OL, Vacca M, Araujo MER, Montagna M, Venturino A, Ferrari A. Acute toxicity and esterase response to carbaryl exposure in two different populations of amphipods Hyalella Curvispina. Aquat Toxicol 2017 Jul;188:72-79. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.04.013.
9. Dhouib I, Jallouli M, Annabi A, Marzouki S, Gharbi N, Elfazaa S, et al. From immunotoxicity to carcinogenicity: the effects of carbamate pesticides on the immune system. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 May;23(10):9448-58. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6418-6.
10. Jorsaraei SGA, Maliji G, Azadmehr A, Moghadamnia AA, Faraji AA. Immunotoxicity effects of carbaryl in vivo and in vitro. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2014 Nov;38(3):838-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2014.09.004.
11. Tariq A. Hazardous impacts of pesticide usage on farmer’s health in cotton growing region of district Muzaffargarh, Pakistan. Pacif Int J 2019;2(3):12-20.
12. Çakıcı Ö. Histopathologic changes in liver and kidney tissues induced by carbaryl in Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae). Exp Toxicol Pathol 2015 Mar;67(3):237-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.etp.2014.12.003
13. Çakici Ö. Carbaryl-induced histopathologic alterations in the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae). Toxicol Pathol 2014 Aug;42(6):1032-40. DOI: 10.1177/0192623313503517.
14. Muthaiah VPK, Ding D, Salvi R, Roth JA. Carbaryl‐induced ototoxicity in rat postnatal cochlear organotypic cultures. Environ Toxicol 2017 Mar;32(3):956-969. DOI: 10.1002/tox.22296.
15. Çakici Ö. Toxic effects of carbaryl on the histology of testes of Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae). Acta Herpetol 2015;10(1). DOI: 10.13128/Acta_Herpetol-14780.
16. Çakıcı Ö. Histopathological study of toxic effects of carbaryl on digestive tract of Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int2016 Jul;23(13):13432-7. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6529-0.
17. Cakici O, Akat E. Histopathological effects of carbaryl on digestive system of snake-eyed lizard, Ophisops elegans. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2012 May;88(5):685-90. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-012-0571-5.
18. Sengupta P. The laboratory rat: relating its age with human's. Int J Prev Med 2013 Jun;4(6):624-30.
19. Charan J, Kantharia N. How to calculate sample size in animal studies? J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2013 Oct-Dec; 4(4): 303–306. DOI: 10.4103/0976-500X.119726.
20. Saad SMM AE-A, Abd El-Rahman, Hanan H. Osman. Effect of Prolonged Oral Administration of Carbaryl on Fertility, Liver and Kidney Function of Albino Rats. Annals Agric Sci Moshtohor 2003;41: 127-141.
21. Pant N, Shankar R, Srivastava SP. Spermatotoxic effects of carbaryl in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 1996 Sep;15(9):736-8. DOI: 10.1177/096032719601500903.
22. Habib K, Kumar S, Manikar N, Zutshi S, Fatma T. Biochemical effect of carbaryl on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes of cyanobacterium Calothrix brevissima. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2011 Dec;87(6):615-20. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-011-0410-0.
23. Mahajan R, Hamid S, Singh H. Histopathological effects of carbaryl on liver in albino rats. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2013;33:1-7. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1051.
24. Mahindra N, Manumati M. Effect of Carbaryl on the Histomorphometry of Kidney in Albino Rats. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2013;5:31-4. DOI: 10.9790/0853-0543134.
25. Hamid S, Mahajan R, Singh H. Carbaryl, a pesticide causes “toxic hepatitis” in albino rats. J Cytol Histol. 2012;3(4):149-54. DOI:10.4172/2157-7099.1000149.
26. Khanam S. Toxicological Effect on Behaviour and Body Weight of Broiler Chicks Exposed to Carbaryl and Zinc: GRIN Verlag; 2017.
27. Khudair Z. Toxicologic Pathology of Carbaryl in Pigeons in Basrah/ Iraq. Int J Emerg Trends Sci Technol 2015;2(1):3364-9. DOI:10.18535/ijetst/v2i11.07.