EFFECTS OF WHOLE-GROUND FLAX SEEDS VERSUS FLAX OIL FOR PESTICIDE RESIDUES-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS

Main Article Content

Lubna Shahper
Fozia Farzana
Muhammad Qasim Muneer
Sadia Hassan
Romana Hashim
Maria Ilyas

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To observe the possible curative effects of whole-ground flax seeds meal versus flax oil for pesticide residue-induced nephrotoxicity.


METHODS: In this experimental study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups: control group (A) and experimental groups (B, C & D), as approved by ethical committee, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, Pakistan. Subchronic dose of triazophos-8.2 mg/kg body weight (1/10th of LD50) was given to the group B, C & D via oral gavage, as 1:100 dilution solution for 21 consecutive days. In addition, group C was given flax seeds oil (1.86 g/kg/day) while group D was given whole ground flax seeds meal (800 mg/kg/day). Biochemical analysis of serum creatinine on day 1, 7, 14 and 21 was done. Hematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic Acid Schiff staining was used for histological examination. The mean diameter of renal corpuscle (RCD), proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT) in all groups were calculated by micrometry.


RESULTS: Micrometric measurement in group A were as follows: RCD-89.43±3.43µm, PCT diameter-38.90±2.72µm, DCT diameter-34.48±2.58µm). Group B, C & D slides showed RCD-70.12±2.76µm, 80.67±3.34µm, 87.49±4.66µm), PCT diameters (50.35±2.61µm, 43.70±2.35µm, 38.45±2.57µm) and DCT diameters (48.03±3.42µm, 38.65±2.55µm, 35.33±3.02µm) respectively. Biochemical analysis showed raised serum creatinine in group B (2.183±0.367mg/dL), near normal levels in group C (0.698±0.013mg/dL) & comparable with control group, in group D (0.718±0.051mg/dL).


CONCLUSION: Renal tissue when exposed to pesticides, showed disturbed biochemical and histological architecture. Whole-ground flax seeds ameliorate the histopathological and biochemical renal damage better than flax seeds oil against pesticides-residues exposure.

Article Details

How to Cite
Shahper, L., F. Farzana, M. Muneer, S. Hassan, R. Hashim, and M. Ilyas. “EFFECTS OF WHOLE-GROUND FLAX SEEDS VERSUS FLAX OIL FOR PESTICIDE RESIDUES-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, Vol. 12, no. 2, June 2020, pp. 86-94, doi:10.35845/kmuj.2020.19869.
Section
Original Articles

References

1. Damalas CA, Eleftherohorinos IG. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011 May;8(5):1402-19. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8051402.
2. Syed JH, Alamdar A, Mohammad A, Ahad K, Shabir Z, Ahmed H, et al. Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Pakistan: a review of the occurrence and associated human health risks. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014;21(23):13367-93. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3117-z.
3. Bock R, Thier W. Metabolism and fate of triazophos in rats. Pestic Sci 1976;7(3):307-14. DOI: 10.1002/ps.2780070316.
4. Bernacchia R, Preti R, Vinci G. Chemical composition and health benefits of flax seeds. Austin J Nutri Food Sci 2014;2(8):1045.
5. Skorkowska-Telichowska K, Hasiewicz-Derkacz K, Gębarowski T, Kulma A, Moreira H, Kostyn K, et al. Emulsions made of oils from seeds of GM flax protect V79 cells against oxidative stress. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016;2016:7510759. DOI: 10.1155/2016/7510759.
6. Shim YY, Gui B, Arnison PG, Wang Y, Reaney MJ. Flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) bioactive compounds and peptide nomenclature: A review. Trends Food Sci Tech 2014; 38(1):5-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.tifs.2014.03.011
7. Aryee ANA, Boye JI. Current and emerging trends in the formulation and manufacture of nutraceuticals and functional food products. In: Boye JI (eds), Nutraceutical and Functional Food Processing Technology. 2015, pp1-52. John Wiley & Sons, Canada. DOI: 10.1002/9781118504956.ch1.
8. Austria JA, Richard MN, Chahine MN, Edel AL, Malcolmson LJ, Dupasquier CM, et al. Bioavailability of alpha-linolenic acid in subjects after ingestion of three different forms of flax seeds. J Am Coll Nutr 2008 Apr 1; 27(2):214-21. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2008.10719693.
9. Goyal A, Sharma V, Upadhyay N, Gill S, Sihag M. Flax and flax seeds oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food. J Food Sci Technol 2014 Sep 1;51(9):1633-53. DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1247-9.
10. Touré A, Xueming X. Flax seeds lignans: source, biosynthesis, metabolism, antioxidant activity, bio‐active components, and health benefits. Comp R Food Sci Food Saf 2010 May; 9(3):261-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00105.x.
11. Teh SS, Birch J. Physicochemical and quality characteristics of cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils. J Food Comp Anal 2013 May 1; 30(1):26-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2013.01.004.
12. Hyvärinen HK, Pihlava JM, Hiidenhovi JA, Hietaniemi V, Korhonen HJ, Ryhänen EL. Effect of processing and storage on the stability of flax seeds lignan added to bakery products. J Agri Food Chem 2006 Jan 11;54(1):48-53. DOI: 10.1021/jf0507590.
13. Chandra MO, Raj JA, Dogra TD, Rajvanshi AC, Raina AN. Determination of median lethal dose of triazophos with DMSO in Wistar rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7(4):64-7.
14. Moneim AEA, Dkhil MA, Al-Quraishy S. The protective effect of flax seeds oil on lead acetate-induced renal toxicity in rats. J Hazard Mater 2011 Oct 30;194:250-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.07.097.
15. Sawant SH, Bodhankar SL. Flax lignan concentrate reverses alterations in blood pressure, left ventricular functions, lipid profile and antioxidant status in DOCA-salt induced renal hypertension in rats. Ren Fail 2016 Mar 15;38(3):411-23. DOI: 10.3109/0886022X.2015.1136895.
16. Bancroft JD, Gamble M, editors. Theory and practice of histological techniques. Elsevier health sciences; 2008.
17. Myers RB, Fredenburgh JL, Grizzle WE: 2008, Carbohydrates. In: Bancroft, J.D. and Gamble, M. 6th ed. Theory and practice of histological techniques. UK: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 168-171.
18. Sharma D, Sangha GK. Triazophos induced oxidative stress and histomorphological changes in liver and kidney of female albino rats. Pestic Biochem Physiol 2014 Mar 1;110:71-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.03.003.
19. Rahman SA, Sattar DA. Effect of different concentration of Super Cyren pesticide on some physiological and histological traits of mice after different periods of oral administration. Iraqi J Sci 2018 Jan 8;58(4C):2291-300.
20. Ogborn MR, Nitschmann E, Weiler H, Leswick D, Bankovic-Calic N. Flax seeds ameliorates interstitial nephritis in rat polycystic kidney disease. Kidney Int 1999 Feb 1; 55(2):417-23. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00287.x.
21. Abdollahi M, Ranjbar A, Shadnia S, Nikfar S, Rezaiee A. Pesticides and oxidative stress: a review. Med Sci Monit 2004 Jun;10(6):RA141-7.
22. Mohineesh, Raj J, Rajvanshi AC, Dogra TD, Raina A. Effect of acute exposure of triazophos on oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in liver, kidney and brain of Wistar rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2014 Aug;52(8):814-9.
23. Rathod GB, Parmar P, Rathod S, Parikh A. Hazards of free radicals in various aspects of health–a review. J Forensic Toxicol Pharmacol 2014;3(2):1-7. DOI:10.4172/2325-9841.1000119.