Objective: To evaluate the role of urinary protein to creatinine (P:C) ratio as a predictor of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in renal failure patients.
Material and Method: This study was conducted at Liaquat National Medical College & Hospital, Karachi from Jan-Dec 2006 on 121 patients (77 males, 44 females) with acute renal failure (ARF) & chronic renal failure (CRF). Clinical history, relevant investigations, renal status, dialysis routine and frequency were recorded. Random Urine samples (single void) were collected and the P:C ratio were calculated.
Result: Out of 121 patients, 21 patients developed ESRD including 16 males (12 CRF, 4 ARF) and 5 females (all CRF). Statistical analyses shows no significant difference between sum of P:C ratio of CRF and ARF patients. However moderate significance (P < 0.05) was noted among P:C ratio of ESRD patients when compared with males CRF and ARF groups. Similarly, female groups also showed non-significant difference, whereas ESRD patients (FCES), depicts moderate (P < 0.05) significance when compared with female CRF and ARF groups. P:C ratio of males and females ESRD groups showed no significance difference. Mean P:C ratio in male CRF end stagecategory was 4.12 ± 0.82 (range 2.5 - 9.1) where as in male ARF end stage 3.78 ± 1.67 (range 1.80- 7.12). Mean P:C ratio in female CRF end stage category was 3.94 ± 0.79 (range 1.76 - 5.98).
Conclusion: Patients with > 1.0 of P:C ratio has developed ESRD. Higher the ratio of P:C, the more was risk of deterioration of clinical condition.
Key words: Protein to Creatinine ratio, end-stage renal disease, ESRD, Chronic Renal Failure, CRF, Acute Renal Failure, ARF
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