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Shehnaz Abdul Sheikh
Jawaid Altaf Baig
Mohammad Baig
Abdul Waheed



Exposure to contaminants, generally called pollution, relates back to olden age when the environment was clean and free from chemicals. Knowledge of human exposure to environmental contaminants is an important component of environmental epidemiology, risk assessment, risk management, status and trends analysis. Exposure information provides a critical link between sources of contaminants, their presence in the environment and potential human health effects. Important exposure medias include outdoor air, indoor air, food, exterior and interior soil, household dust, drinking and cooking water. Exposure occurs via inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact.

Indoor dust is becoming recognized as a reservoir for many toxic substances and a potentially significant source of human exposure. Pesticides found in indoor settled dust come from its use in the house, as well as from outdoor sources and as little or no training is provided for its use, unnecessary exposures often occur. Pesticides have also been examined in epidemiological studies as environmental risk factors for cancer. Assessing exposure to contamination with biological markers presents a unique advantage and represents a different perspective for evaluation of human exposure to contamination. Risk assessment may be used to identify and evaluate population and individuals at potentially greater risk so that appropriate mitigation actions can be implemented. A thorough evaluation of the various health and broader impacts of interventions to reduce pollution will help generate the evidence that is required for making sound policy recommendations. Thus globally, pollution prevention should be a key policy in National Environmental Protection activities of all the governments. 

Key Words:  Hazards, Human Exposure, Exposure Media, Contaminants,

Bio-markers, Risk Assessment 

Article Details

How to Cite
Sheikh, S. A., J. A. Baig, M. Baig, and A. Waheed. “POLLUTION: A SILENT KILLER”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, vol. 1, no. 1, Mar. 2009, https://www.kmuj.kmu.edu.pk/article/view/3978.
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