BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER OF RAWALAKOT DISTRICT, AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTAN

Main Article Content

Syed Waasif Shoukat
Said Akbar Khan
Muhammad Ishtiaq
Inayat Shah
Syed Umair Ullah Jamil
Tahseenullah Khan

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources of District Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
METHODS: After approval from the Ethical Review Committee of Bahria University Islamabad; this cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Rawalakot District from September 2017 to March 2018. Out of 90 samples, 45 samples (15 each from bore-well, open-well & spring water) were collected in September & October 2017 as pre-rainfall season’s samples and 45 samples were collected in post-rainfall season of February & March 2018, exactly from the same 45 sites from which pre-rainfall water samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed for total bacterial, total coliforms, E.Coli, Shigella and Salmonella Species.
RESULTS: Overall bacterial growth on Nutrient Agar was more commonly observed in samples from Bore-well (n=11/15; 73.33%) during pre-rainfall season and in open-well samples (n=12/15; 80%) during post-rainfall season. Total coliforms growth on MacConkey agar was more frequent in post- rainfall season in samples from spring-water (n=9/15; 60%). On eosin methyl blue agar, majority (n=5/15; 33.33%) of E. Coli growth was observed during post-rainfall season in spring water samples. Almost all of the post-rainfall season samples revealed less number of Shigella and Salmonella species compared to pre-rainfall water samples.
CONCLUSION: The post-rainfall season drinking water samples of bore wells, open wells and spring water showed higher number of bacteriological contaminations except Shigella and Salmonella species which were reduced in post-rainfall samples of bore-wells and revealed equal numbers among open-wells and spring water samples.

Article Details

How to Cite
Shoukat, S., S. Khan, M. Ishtiaq, I. Shah, S. Jamil, and T. Khan. “BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER OF RAWALAKOT DISTRICT, AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTAN”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, Vol. 11, no. 4, Dec. 2019, pp. 222-5, doi:10.35845/kmuj.2019.18799.
Section
Original Articles
Author Biographies

Syed Waasif Shoukat, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad
Campus, Pakistan

Said Akbar Khan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad
Campus, Pakistan

 

Assistant Professor

Muhammad Ishtiaq, Department of Community Medicine, Northwest School of Medicine Hayatabad Peshawar, Pakistan

Department Of Community Medicine,
Nowshera Medical College Nowshera, Pakistan

 

Associate Professor

Inayat Shah, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan

 

Assistant Professor

Syed Umair Ullah Jamil, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad, Campus, Pakistan

Tahseenullah Khan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad Campus, Pakistan

 

Professor

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