Drinking Water
Escherichia coli

How to Cite



OBJECTIVE: To assess the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources of District Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
METHODS: After approval from the Ethical Review Committee of Bahria University Islamabad; this cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Rawalakot District from September 2017 to March 2018. Out of 90 samples, 45 samples (15 each from bore-well, open-well & spring water) were collected in September & October 2017 as pre-rainfall season’s samples and 45 samples were collected in post-rainfall season of February & March 2018, exactly from the same 45 sites from which pre-rainfall water samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed for total bacterial, total coliforms, E.Coli, Shigella and Salmonella Species.
RESULTS: Overall bacterial growth on Nutrient Agar was more commonly observed in samples from Bore-well (n=11/15; 73.33%) during pre-rainfall season and in open-well samples (n=12/15; 80%) during post-rainfall season. Total coliforms growth on MacConkey agar was more frequent in post- rainfall season in samples from spring-water (n=9/15; 60%). On eosin methyl blue agar, majority (n=5/15; 33.33%) of E. Coli growth was observed during post-rainfall season in spring water samples. Almost all of the post-rainfall season samples revealed less number of Shigella and Salmonella species compared to pre-rainfall water samples.
CONCLUSION: The post-rainfall season drinking water samples of bore wells, open wells and spring water showed higher number of bacteriological contaminations except Shigella and Salmonella species which were reduced in post-rainfall samples of bore-wells and revealed equal numbers among open-wells and spring water samples.


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