Objective: to find out the frequency of various congenital malformations (CM) in the neonates born at Liaqat MemorialHospital (LMH) Kohat and to find out their association with various risk factors.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted on neonates born to mothers admitted at LMH, Kohat fromJanuary to December 2011. Detailed information regarding CM and associated maternal risk factors were collectedon a predesigned proforma and the data was analyzed by SPSS-17.
Results: Out of 9558 deliveries, 93 (0.97%) babies had various CM. Anencephaly (40.9%), hydrocephalous (29%),hydrocephalus with meningocele (10.7%) and hydrops fetalis (4.3%) were the commonest CM. Overall 60.2% (n=56/93) babies had <2.5 Kg birth weight. Mean age of mothers was 26.10 + 7.406 years. Out of 93 mothers, 75(80.6%)were between 20-40 years of age. Fifty four (58%) mothers were multigravida and 25 (26.9%) were grand-multigravida.Majority (65.6%) had poor socioeconomic status (SES) and 63 (67.7%) mothers had no antenatal checkup before thefinal diagnosis. Consanguinity rate was 61.3% (57/93) and antenatal folic acid intake in 33.3% mothers. Toxoplasmosiswas present in 5.3% (5/93) cases and syphilis in one case. Family history of congenital abnormality was present in8(8.6%) cases and history of maternal passive smoking during pregnancy was positive in 3 (3.2%) of the mothers.
Conclusion: Anencephaly and hydrocephalous were the commonest CM. Poor SES, low intake of folic acid, highconsanguinity rate, low antenatal check up rate and low literacy rate and family history for CM were the commonassociated risk factors of CM.
Key words:Congenital Abnormality, Pregnancy, Hydrocephalus, Meningocele, Anencephaly.
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