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OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of incentive spirometry (IS) and deep breathing exercises (DBE) on pulmonary functions after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
METHODS: This quasi-experimental study consisted of 40 patients from both genders aged 35-60 years, undergoing CABG. Two equal groups were selected through convenient sampling. Group-A patients performed IS while group-B performed DBE. The outcome measures were values of oxygen saturation (SaO2)by pulse oximetry, and partial pressures of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2) measured by arterial blood gases (ABGs).
RESULTS: Mean pO2 (mmHg) at day 1 & day 4 was 136±23.04 & 74.42±16.22 respectively in group-A (p<0.001) as compared to 127.96 ±16.99 & 70.80±10.89 respectively in group-B (p<0.001). Mean value of SaO2 at day 1 & day 4 was 98.52±1.68 & 94.07±2.36 in group-A (p<0.001) as compared to 97.90±1.99 and 95.40±2.04 in group-B (p<0.001) respectively. Mean pCO2 (mmHg) was 42.32±4.57 & 40.07±3.49 at day 1 & day 4 in group-A (p<0.05) and 40.85±4.03 & 39.61±3.40 in group-B (p>0.05) respectively. Common complications observed were atelectasis (n=29/40; 72.5%), pleural effusion (n=6/40; 15%) and pulmonary edema (n=5/40; 12.5%). Majority (n=19; 47.5%) of patients were discharged till 5th postoperative day. Median stay at hospital was 3 days in group-A & 4 days in group-B.
CONCLUSION: There was an improvement in ABGs and SaO2 after CABG surgery in patients receiving chest physiotherapy interventions. Both techniques are equally effective in preventing and treating chest complications in patients having CABG.
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