OBJECTIVE: To examine the gender based differences in depression and social support among patients of HIV, gonadal cancer and hepatitis B & C in tertiary care public hospitals and different organization at Karachi.
METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 patients (100 HIV, 100 gonadal cancer, 100 hepatitis B & C) , at Jinnah
Postgraduate Medical College, Civil hospital, Sindh Government hospital,
Pakistan Society for HIV patients & Sindh AIDS control program
at Karachi, from July 2009 to October 2009. Urdu translated version
of Siddiqui and Shah Depression scale and Indigenous Social Support
Scale were administered. Purposive and snowball sampling methods
were used for data collection.
RESULTS: Out of 300 patients, 198 (66%) were males and 102 (34%)
females with a mean age of 29.95 ±5.25 years. The difference between
social support and depression among the patients of HIV, Gonadal cancer
and hepatitis B & C between genders (t = -4.043, p < .05) & (t =
4.916, p < .05) was significant. There was a significant mean differences
on the variable of social support (male 65.46 ± 48.22, females 88.48
± 43.65) and depression (male 62.49 ± 24.81, females 48.48 ± 20.35).
The frequency of depression among all groups was (25% mild, 18.7%
moderate, & 55.7% high) whereas the frequency of social support was
(25.3% mild, 49.7% moderate, & 25% high).
CONCLUSION: There was a significant difference between male and
female depression and social support
Key Words: Depression, Social Support, HIV+, Gonadal Cancer, Hepatitis B & C
Schraedley PK, Gotlib IH, Hayward C.
Gender differences in correlates of depressive
symptoms in adolescents. Journal
of Adolescent Health 1999; 25: 98-108.
Richards MH, Crowe PA, Larson R, Swar
A. Developmental patterns and gender
differences in the experience of peer
companionship during adolescence. Child
Development 1998; 69 1:154-63.
Kendler KS, Thornton LM, Prescott, CA.
Gender differences in the rates of exposure
to stressful life events and sensitivity
to their depressogenic effects. Am J Psychiat
; 158, 4:587-93.
Piko B. Social support and health in adolescence:
a factor analytical study. Br J Health
Psychol 1998; 3: 333-44.
Ystgaard M, Tambs K, & Dalgard OS. Life
stress, social support and psychological
distress in late adolescence: a longitudinal
study. Social Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiology
; 34: 12-9.
Real T. I Don’t Want to Talk About It:
Overcoming the Secret Legacy of Male
Depression 1997; New York, NY:Fireside.
Hammen C, Peters SD. Interpersonal
consequences of depression: Responses
to men and women enacting a depressed
role. Journal of AbnormalPsychology 1978;
DuBois DL, Felner RD, Meares H, Krier
M. Prospective investigation of the effects
of socioeconomic disadvantage, life stress,
& social support on early adolescent
adjustment. J Abnormal Psychol 1994;
Dyer TP, Stein JA, Rice E, &Rotheram-
Borus MJ. Predicting depression in mothers
with and without HIV: the role of
social support and family dynamics 2012;
De Leeuw JR. De Graeff A, Ros WJ, Hordijk
GJ, Blijham GH, Winnubst JA. Negative
and positive influences of social support
on depression in patients with head and
neck cancer: a prospective study. Research
Group, Psychology of Health and Illness
Wilson MP, Castillo EM, Batey AM, Sapyta
J, &Aronson S. Hepatitis C and depressive
symptoms: psychological and social factors
matter more than liver injury. Internat J
Psychiatr Med 2010; 40, 2:199-215.
Maes M, Bosmans E, Meltzer HY, Scharpe
S, Suy E. Interleukin-1b: a putative mediator
of HPA axis hyperactivity in major
depression? Am J Psychiatr 1993;
Jan QA. Consultative workshop on socio-
economic and psychological factors
involved in the spread of HIV and AIDS
; Quaid-e- Azam University, Islamabad
Dogar IA, Azeem MW, Kiran M, Hussain
I, Mehmood K, Hina I. Depression and
anxiety in cancer patients in outpatient
department of a tertiary care hospital in
Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci 2009; 25, 5:734-7.
Khan AJ. Unsafe injections and the transmission
of hepatitis B and C in a Periurban
community in Pakistan. Bull World Health
Organ 2000; 78: 956–963.
Siddiqui S, Shah SA. Siddiqui Shah depression
scale: Development and validation.
Psychology and Developing Societies
Malik AA, Ismail Z. Development of social
support scale. Pakistan Journal of Psychology
; 36, 1: 3-30.
Leibenluft E. “Why are so many women
depressed?” In: Corner R. ( Ed) Scientific
American: Psychology Reader;2001:New
York: Worth/Scientfic American. pp7-11
Roesler TA, Mckenzie N. Effects of childhood
trauma on psychological
functioning in adults sexually abused as
children. Journal of Nervous and Mental
Disease 1994; 182: 145-150.
Nolen-Hoeksema S. The role of rumination
in depressive disorders and mixed
anxiety/depressive Symptoms. Journal
of Abnormal Psychology 2000; 109(3):
Blazer DG, Kessler RC, McGonagle KA,
Swartz MS. “The prevalence and distribution
of major depression in a national community
sample: The national co-morbidity
survey.” Am J Psychiat 1994; 151: 979-86.
Bebbington P. Sex anression. Psychological
Medicine 1998; 28: 1–8 .
Kessler RC, Mcleod JP. Sex differences in
vulnerability to undesirable life events. Am
Sociological Rev 1984; 49: 620-31.
Pratt L, Bandura B, Kickbush I. Health
promotion research. Copenhagen: World
Health Organization for Europe,1991:10.
The social support functions of the family.
Brugha TS. Social networks and support.
Current Opinion in Psychiatry 1990;
Bebbington PE. The origins of sex differences
in depressive disorder: bridging the
gap. Internat Rev Psychiat 1996;8:295-332.
Gupta S. Reducing anxiety and depression
among HIV Positive Patients. Pak J Social
Clin Psychol 2009; 7: 18-30.
Nolen-Hoeksema S, Keita GP. Women and
depression: Introduction. Psychol Women
Quarterly 2013; 27: 89-90.
Spiegal D, Giese-Davis J. Depression
and cancer: Mechanisms and disease
progression. Biological Psychology 2003;
, 3: 269-82.
Hann D, Baker F, Denniston M, Gesme D,
Reding D, Flynn T, et al . The influence of
social support on depressive symptoms in
cancer patients: age and gender differences.
J Psychosom Res 2002;52, 5:279-83.
Shaw BA, Janevic M. Associations between
anticipated support, p h y s i c a l
functioning, and education level among a
nationally sample of older adults.
J Aging Health 2004; 16: 539-61.
Wattanakit K, Williams JE, Schreiner PJ,
Hirsch AT, Folsom AR. Association
of anger proneness, depression and low
social support with peripheral arterial
disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities
Study. Vascular Medicine 2005;
Bisschop MI, Kriegsman DM, Beekman AT,
Deeg DJ. Chronic diseases and depression:
the modifying role of psychosocial
resources. Social Science Medicine 2004;
Antonucci TC, Akiyama H. An examination
of sex differences in social support among
older men and women. Sex Roles 1987;
, 11/12: 737-49.
Murawski BJ, Penman D, Schmitt M. Social
support in health and illness: The concept
and its measurement. Cancer Nursing
; 1: 365-71.
Turner HA. Gender and social support:
Taking the bad with the good? Sex Roles:
; 30, 7-8: 521-41.
Bell D. Gender differences in the social
moderators of stress. In: Barnett RC, Beiner
L, Baruch GK, eds. Gender and Stress
; NewYork: Free Press. Pp. 257-277
Tamres LK, Janicki D, Helgeson VS. Sex
Differences in Coping Behavior: A Meta-
Analytic Review and an Examination
of Relative Coping. Pers Soc Psychol
Rev2002; 6: 12-30.
Riaz Z, Ahmed R, Kjhanam SJ. Does Social
Support And Self Esteem Determine
Depression In Chronically Ill Patients? In:
Li Z, Bennett SR.Chronicity Enquiries.
Interdisciplinary Press. 2013; 1:pp. 143-59.
Work published in KMUJ is licensed under a
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.