Association of asthenopia with refractive errors in madrassa students

Main Article Content

Sharmeen Shahid
Sania Abdul Rauf
Shanza Dastgir
Farhana Ali
Rabia Saifullah
Uswa Fatima


OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of presenting clinical features of asthenopia in madrassa students with different refractive errors.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September-November 2022 at different Madrassas in Lahore, Pakistan. Study was performed on a sample of 108 patients, who had different refractive difficulties. Informed consent was taken from the patients aging ≥18 years and from parents/ guardians of patients aging <18 years. A self-designed questionnaire was used to gather the data of all patients. Patients with different refractive errors within the range of 8-25 years were taken into consideration. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 25. A statistically significant p-value of 0.05 was considered.

RESULTS: Out of 108 patients, 38 (35.2%) were males and 70 (64.8%) were females. Majority (n=59; 54.6%) were >16 years of age. Common asthenopic symptoms included hazy vision (n=106; 98.1%), headache (n=93; 86.1%), discomfort (n=79; 73.1%), pain (n=76; 70.4%) and eye strain (n=72; 66.7%). Common refractive errors were myopia (n=59; 54.6%), hypermetropia (n=25; 23.2%) and astigmatism (n=24; 22.2%). Severity of refractive errors was mild in majority of cases of myopia (n=24/59; and hypermetropia (n= and moderate in astigmatism (n=16; 64%). Headache, eye strain and blurring of vision had significant association with myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism.

CONCLUSION:  Myopia and hypermetropia are the most common refractive errors; hazy vision and headache are the common asthenopic symptoms. There is a strong association between asthenopic symptoms and refractive errors.

Article Details

How to Cite
Shahid, S., S. A. Rauf, S. Dastgir, F. Ali, R. Saifullah, and U. Fatima. “Association of Asthenopia With Refractive Errors in Madrassa Students”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, vol. 15, no. 2, June 2023, pp. 101-5, doi:10.35845/kmuj.2023.23247.
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