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OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of 25-hydroxy vitamin-D deficiency in Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Civil Hospital Karachi, Pakistan from January to December 2019. One hundred and sixty five diagnosed cases of MS of either gender, aging 20-55 years, not taking vitamin-D supplements, steroids and could go outside in the sun were selected through non-probability consecutive sampling technique. Patients having history of rickets, parathyroid disease, chronic liver or renal diseases were excluded. Blood sample was taken to measure 25-hydroxyl vitamin D3 levels. A level of <20 ng/ml was considered as vitamin-D deficient. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants.
RESULTS: Out of 165 MS patients, 106 (64.24%) were females, 66 (40%) had income between PKR 10000-25000, 51 (30.9%) were illiterate and 12 (7.3%) had graduate level education. Majority (n=101; 61.21%) had relapsing-remitting MS. Mean age of enrolled participants was 32.92±8.19 years and mean duration of MS was 2.17±0.84 years. Ninety-nine (60%) patients had history of adequate sun exposure. Vitamin-D deficiency in MS patients was 55 (33.3%). Female patients with MS had 2.9 times more likely to be vitamin-D deficient compared to male patients (95% CI: 1.3-6.5). Vitamin-D deficiency In MS patients having no or primary level education patients was recorded in 38 (69.1%) patients as compared to 17 (31.9%) case having secondary or higher education (p-value=0.046).
CONCLUSION: Vitamin-D deficiency is common in MS patients. Female and less educated MS patients are at a higher risk of being vitamin-D deficient.
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