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Objective: To determine the frequency of conventional cardiovascular risk factors associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in female patients admitted in cardiology unit.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted on all females fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of ACS, admitted in cardiology department, KTH Peshawar from January to December 2009. Under the categories of ST-Elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), Non- ST-Elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and Unstable Angina pectoris (USA), the conventional risk factors i.e. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, lack of physical activity and smoking were identified and analyzed with particular reference to age, geographical distribution, education level and socioeconomic status.
Results: A total of 337 female patients with ACS were reviewed for conventional risk factors. Out of 337 patients with ACS, 115(34.1%), 78(23%) and 144 (42.7%) were diagnosed as STEMI, NSTEMI and USA respectively. ACS appears to be more common (54.2%) in female age group >55 years of age, with mean age of 53 years ± 8 years. Lack of physical activity (84.5%), hypertension (76.5%), diabetes mellitus (63.7%) and dyslipidemia (42%) appear to predispose to ACS. Interestingly, 43(12.7%) female presented with ACS were smokers. About 60% patients with ACS had >2 conventional risk factors and 59% of patients with >3 risk factors were of >55 years age group.
Conclusion: USA was the most common diagnosis among females presented with ACS. Lack of physical activity, diabetes and hypertension were identified as conventional risk factors for ACS in female patients. The frequency of number of conventional risk factors increases with increasing age.
Key Words: Risk factors, Acute Coronary Syndrome, ST-Elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), Non- ST-Elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), Unstable Angina (USA), Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia.
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