Main Article Content

Nadia Batool
Rubina Hanif


OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence of mental health states (positive mental wellbeing levels) across professional groups working in diverse work settings in indigenous context.
METHODS: This Cross-sectional study was conducted at public tertiary care hospitals (Jinnah hospital Lahore, combined military hospital), telecommunication companies (Warid, Telenor), Multinational firms, consultancy firms, Askari, bank, Muslim Commercial Bank located at Islamabad and Lahore ,Pakistan from February 2016 to December 2016. Data was collected from professionals (N=509) through purposive sampling technique. The present research employed Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) for measuring positive mental wellbeing levels and psychological distress (complete mental health).
RESULTS: Descriptive statistics revealed satisfactory psychometrics of MHC-SF (α=0.86) and BSI (α=0.97) and its subscales Results of ANOVA showed significant mean difference across professional groups in social wellbeing F (4,616=4.20; p<.001), somatization F (4,566=4.58; p<0.01), η2= 0.03, interpersonal sensitivity F (4,599) =5.23; p<0.001 and paranoid ideation F (4,585=2.88; p<.02). Post-hoc analysis using Tukey followed by ANOVA further revealed mean differences between specific professional groups on social wellbeing dimension i.e., bankers and telecom officers (-1.89; p<0.03), doctors and telecom officers (-3.07; p<05).
CONCLUSION: Higher level of positive mental health buffers impact of negative stressors in personal and work domains. This also reflects a dire need to shift focus towards engaging mental health promotion strategies in order to develop flourishing, productive workforce, rather than solely focusing on assuaging mental illness and psychological distress.

Article Details

How to Cite
Original Articles
Author Biography

Rubina Hanif, National Institute of Psychology, Centre of Excellence, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Associate Professor

National Institute of Psychology

Centre of excellence

Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad

Mailing address: National Institute of psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University


Magyary D. Positive mental health: A turn of the century perspective. Int J Ment Health Nurs 2002 Jan 1; 23(4):331-49. DOI: 10.1080/01612840290052550.

Keyes CL. Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. J Consult Clin Psychol 2005 Jun; 73(3):539-48. DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.539.

Huppert FA, Whittington JE. Evidence for the independence of positive and negative wellbeing: Implications for quality of life assessment. Br J Health Psychol 2003 Feb; 8(1):107-22.

Keyes CL, Dhingra SS, Simoes EJ. Change in level of positive mental health as a predictor of future risk of mental illness. Am J Public Health 2010 Dec; 100(12):2366-71.DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2010.192245.

World Health Organization. Mental Health Action Plan for Europe: Facing the Challenges, Building Solutions. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 2005.

Keyes CL, Shmotkin D, Ryff CD. Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. J Pers Soc Psychol 2002 Jun; 82(6):1007-.1022.

Deci EL, Ryan RM. Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life's domains. Can Psychol 2008 Feb; 49(1):14-23. DOI:10.1037/0708-5591.49.1.14.

Keyes CL. The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. J Health Soc Behav 2002;43(2);207-22.

Wang X, Zhang D, Wang J. Dual-factor model of mental health: Surpass the traditional mental health model. Psychology 2011 Nov 4;2(08):767-72. DOI:10.4236/psych.2011.28117.

Keyes CL. Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing: A complementary strategy for improving national mental health. Am Psychol 2007 Feb; 62(2):95-108. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.95.

Westerhof GJ, Keyes CL. Mental illness and mental health: The two continua model across the lifespan. J Adult Dev 2010 Jun 1;17(2):110-19. DOI: 10.1007/s10804-009-9082-y.

Seow LSE, Vaingankar JA, Abdin E, Sambasivam R, Jeyagurunathan A, Pang S, et al. Positive mental health in outpatients with affective disorders: Associations with life satisfaction and general functioning. J Affect Disord 2016 Jan 15;190:499-507. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.10.021.

Schönfeld P, Brailovskaia J, Bieda A, Zhang XC, Margraf J. The effects of daily stress on positive and negative mental health: Mediation through self-efficacy. Int J Clin Health Psychol 2016 Jan; 16(1):1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijchp.2015.08.005.

Thompson WT, Cupples ME, Sibbett CH, Skan DI, Bradley T. Challenge of culture, conscience, and contract to general practitioners' care of their own health: qualitative study. Br Med J 2001 Sep 29; 323(7315):728-31. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.323.7315.728.

Dowell AC, Hamilton S, McLeod DK. Job satisfaction, psychological morbidity and job stress among New Zealand general practitioners. N Z Med J 2000 Jul 14;113(1113):269-72.

Ali BS, Rahbar MH, Naeem S, Tareen AL, Gul A, Samad L. Prevalence of and factors associated with anxiety and depression among women in a lower middle class semi-urban community of Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2002 Nov; 52(11):513-7.

Khuwaja AK, Qureshi R, Andrades M, Fatmi Z, Khuwaja NK. Comparison of job satisfaction and stress among male and female doctors in teaching hospitals of Karachi. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2004;16(1):23-7.

Atif K, Khan HU, Malik AF. Do doctors have hidden distress; a study conducted at tertiary care hospital at Lahore. J Pak Med Assoc 2016 Jan;66(1):63-7.

Atif K, Boghsani GT, Javed A, Javed S. Does lack of job satisfaction intensify psychological distress among clinicians, and vice versa? Electron J Gen Med 2018; 15(5):em82.

Khuwaja AK, Qureshi R, Azam SI. Prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among family practitioners in Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2004 Feb;54(2):45-9.

Giorgi G, Arcangeli G, Perminiene M, Lorini C, Ariza-Montes A, Fiz-Perez J, et al. Work-Related Stress in the Banking Sector: A Review of Incidence, Correlated Factors, and Major Consequences. Front Psychol 2017 Dec; 8:2166. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02166.

Chatta HA, Zafar A, Amin F. Measurement of Stress among Doctors in Surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Lahore General Hospital, Lahore. Pak J Med Health Sci 2017;11(3):874-7.

Picco L, Yuan Q, Vaingankar JA, Chang S, Abdin E, Chua HC, et al. (2017) Positive mental health among health professionals working at a psychiatric hospital. PLoS One 2017 Jun 7;12(6):e0178359. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178359.

Derogatis LR, Melisaratos N. The brief symptom inventory: an introductory report. Psychol Med 1983 Aug; 13(3):595-605.

Keyes CL, Wissing M, Potgieter JP, Temane M, Kruger A, Van Rooy S. Evaluation of the mental health continuum–short form (MHC–SF) in Setswana speaking South Africans. Clin Psychol Psychother 2008 May; 15(3):181-92. DOI: 10.1002/cpp.572

Keyes CL, Grzywacz JG. Health as a complete state: The added value in work performance and healthcare costs. J Occup Environ Med 2005 May 1;47(5):523-32. DOI: 10.1097/01.jom.0000161737.21198.3a.

Keyes CL. The nature and importance of positive mental health in America’s adolescents. Handbook of positive psychology in schools. 2009 Feb Mar 4 (pp. 27-42). Routledge.

Lim YJ, Ko YG, Shin HC, Cho Y. Prevalence and correlates of complete mental health in the South Korean adult population. In Mental Well-Being 2013 (pp. 91-109). Springer, Dordrecht.

Cox J. Understanding doctors' performance. Radcliffe Publishing; 2006.

Cappelli P, Bassi L, Katz H, Knoke D, Osterman P, Useem M. Change at work. New York: Oxford University Press; 1997.

Keyes CL, Eisenberg D, Perry GS, Dube SR, Kroenke K, Dhingra SS. The relationship of level of positive mental health with current mental disorders in predicting suicidal behavior and academic impairment in college students. J Am Coll Health 2012 Feb 1;60(2):126-33. DOI: 10.1080/07448481.2011.608393

Robone S, Jones AM, Ri+ce N. Contractual conditions, working conditions, health and well-being in the British household panel survey. Eur J Health Econ 2011 Oct;12(5):429-44. DOI: 10.1007/s10198-010-0256-0.

Llena-Nozal A, OECD F. Are all jobs good for your health? The impact of work status and working conditions on mental health; 2008.