Main Article Content
OBJECTIVE: To find out number of roots, root-canals and canal configuration in permanent mandibular third molars through tooth clearing technique.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 193 extracted human mandibular permanent third molars with completely formed apical foramen and intact roots were collected from both genders treated at dental hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan from 1st July to 31st December 2019. After collection teeth were visually inspected to count number of roots, followed by access cavity preparation, pulp extirpation and canal staining with black Indian ink. Decalcification was done by placing teeth in nitric acid for 5 days followed by dehydration in ascending concentrations of alcohol. Complete transparency was achieved by immersing teeth in methyl-salicylate for 72 hours. Transparent teeth were inspected again for number of roots and root-canals.
RESULTS: Among 193 extracted mandibular third molars, (n=161; 83.4%) had two-roots and (n=24; 12.4%) were single-rooted. Two-canals were present in vast majority (n=142; 73.6%) whereas three and one-canal were seen in (n=37; 19.2%) and (n=13; 6.7%) teeth respectively. Most common type of root canal pattern was Vertucci’s Type-I in mesial-roots (n=79; 63.7%) and distal-roots (n=120; 96.8%). Vertucci’s Type-II and Type-IV were (n=15; 12.1%) and (n=12; 9.7%) in the mesial-roots respectively. Mandibular third molars didn’t present with any configurations that didn’t fullfill Vertucci’s criteria. Correlation between number of roots and root-canals of mandibular third molars was non-significant.
CONCLUSION: Two-roots and two-canals were common patterns for mandibular third molars. Mesial and distal roots were predominant in Type-I followed by Type-II and Type-IV Vertucci’s classification.
Work published in KMUJ is licensed under a
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
2. Kruger E, Thomson WM, Konthasinghe P. Third molar outcomes from age 18 to 26: Findings from a population-based New Zealand longitudinal study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol 2001;92(2):150-5. https://doi.org/10.1067/moe.2001.115461.
3. Hashemi HM, Beshkar M, Aghajani R. The effect of sutureless wound closure on postoperative pain and swelling after impacted mandibular third molar surgery. British J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012;50(3):256-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjoms.2011.04.075.
4. Taluja C, Shah N, Joshi H. Root Canal Morphology and Variations of Mandibular Premolars by Clearing Technique: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dental Prac 2011;12(4):318-21. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1052.
5. Yan Q, Li B, Long X. Immediate autotransplantation of mandibular third molar in China. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol 2010;110(4):436-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2010.02.026.
6. Kitahara T, Nakasima A, Shiratsuchi Y. Orthognathic Treatment with Autotransplantation of Impacted Maxillary Third Molar. Angle Orthod 2009;79(2):401-6. https://doi.org/10.2319/022008-103.1.
7. Neelakantan P, Subbarao C, Ahuja R, Subbarao CV, Gutmann JL. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Study of Root and Canal Morphology of Maxillary First and Second Molars in an Indian Population. J Endod 2010;36(10):1622-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2010.07.006.
8. Ghobashy AM, Nagy MM, Bayoumi AA. Evaluation of root and canal morphology of maxillary permanent molars in an Egyptian population by cone-beam computed tomography. J Endod 2017;43(7):1089-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2017.02.014.
9. Razumova S, Brago A, Barakat H, Howijieh A. Morphology of Root Canal System of Maxillary and Mandibular Molars. In: Human Teeth-Key Skills and Clinical Illustrations. IntechOpen; 2019. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.84151.
10. Peiris R, Takahashi M, Sasaki K, Kanazawa E. Root and canal morphology of permanent mandibular molars in a Sri Lankan population. Odontology 2007;95(1):16-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10266-007-0074-8.
11. Weine FS, Hayami S, Hata G, Toda T. Canal configuration of the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar of a Japanese sub-population. Int Endod J 1999;32(2):79-87. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2591.1999.00186.x.
12. Neelakantan P, Subbarao C, Subbarao CV. Comparative Evaluation of Modified Canal Staining and Clearing Technique, Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography, Spiral Computed Tomography, and Plain and Contrast Medium–enhanced Digital Radiography in Studying Root Canal Morphology. J Endod 2010;36(9):1547–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2010.05.008.
13. Sert S, Aslanalp V, Tanalp J. Investigation of the root canal configurations of mandibular permanent teeth in the Turkish population. Int Endod J 2004;37(7):494-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2591.2004.00837.x.
14. Sidow SJ, West LA, Liewehr FR, Loushine RJ. Root Canal Morphology of Human Maxillary and Mandibular Third Molars. J Endod 2000;26(11):675-8. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004770-200011000-00011.
15. Kuzekanani M, Haghani J, Nosrati H. Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular Third Molars in an Iranian Population. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospect 2012;6(3):85-8. https://doi.org/10.5681/joddd.2012.018.
16. Ahmad I, Azzeh M, Zwiri AbdalwahabMA, Abu Haija MA, Diab M. Root and root canal morphology of third molars in a Jordanian subpopulation. Saudi Endod J 2016;6(3):113. https://doi.org/10.4103/1658-5984.189350.
17. Zhang W, Tang Y, Liu C, Shen Y, Feng X, Gu Y. Root and root canal variations of the human maxillary and mandibular third molars in a Chinese population: A micro–computed tomographic study. Arch Oral Biol 2018;95:134-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.07.020.
18. Gulabivala K, Aung TH, Alavi A, Ng Y-L. Root and canal morphology of Burmese mandibular molars. Int Endod J 2001;34(5):359-370. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2591.2001.00399.x.
19. Ng Y-L, Aung TH, Alavi A, Gulabivala K. Root and canal morphology of Burmese maxillary molars. Int Endod J 2001;34(8):620-30. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2591.2001.00438.x.
20. Vertucci FJ. Root canal anatomy of the human permanent teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol 1984;58(5):589-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-4220(84)90085-9.
21. Gulabivala K, Opasanon A, Ng Y-L, Alavi A. Root and canal morphology of Thai mandibular molars. Int Endod J 2002;35(1):56-62. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2591.2002.00452.x.
22. Sert S, Şahinkesen G, Topçu FT, Eroğlu ŞE, Oktay EA. Root canal configurations of third molar teeth. A comparison with first and second molars in the Turkish population. Australian Endod J 2011;37(3):109-17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-4477.2010.00254.x.
23. Cosic J, Galić N, Vodanović M, Njemirovskij V, Šegović S, Pavelić B, et al. An in vitro morphological investigation of the endodontic spaces of third molars. Coll Antropol 2013;37(2):437-42. https://doi.org/0000-0002-1935-8657.
24. Faramarzi F, Shahriari S, Shokri A, Vossoghi M, Yaghoobi G. Radiographic evaluation of root and canal morphologies of third molar teeth in Iranian population. Avicenna J Dent Res 2013;5(1). https://doi.org/10.17795/ajdr-21102.