Main Article Content
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of Tanaka and Johnston and Bherwani’s prediction equations when applied to a sample of Pashtun population of Pakistan.
METHODS: Odontometric data from casts of 180 subjects (90 males and 90 females, ages 13-19 years) of Pashtun origin was collected using digital callipers. Mesiodistal widths of mandibular incisors, mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars were measured. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 20.
RESULTS: Data was analysed for 90 male and 90 female subjects with a mean age of 15.7±1.7years and 15.4±1.5 years, respectively. Statistically significant right and left tooth size difference was found only for upper arch in males (mean 0.08, p=0.027). Statistically significant gender dimorphism was noted for tooth sizes tooth sizes with males showing larger tooth sizes. Tanaka and Johnston equations significantly overestimated the sizes of canine and premolars segments for upper (mean difference=0.72+0.96, p=0.000) and lower (mean difference=0.75+0.94, p=0.000) arches when applied to ethnic Pashtun population. Customized Regression equations represented by y=a+b(x) were derived for unerupted canine and premolars segments of Pashtun population. The values for coefficient of correlation (r) ranged from 0.59 to 0.73 and the coefficient of determination (r2) ranged from 0.36-0.52.
CONCLUSION: Tanaka and Johnston equations developed for North American population (at 75th percentile) should be used with caution for mixed dentition analyses in local Pashtun population as it overestimates tooth sizes in males and females. Regression equations developed in this study can be used for diagnostic planning in local Pashtun children.
KEY WORDS: Linear Regressions (MeSH); Mixed Dentition (MeSH); Space Maintenance (MeSH); Space Closure (MeSH); Tanaka and Johnston (non-MeSH).
Work published in KMUJ is licensed under a
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
1. Tanaka MM, Johnston LE. The prediction of the sizes of unerupted canines and premolars in a contemporary orthodontic population. J Am Dent Assoc 1974(88):798-801.
2. Moyers RE. Analysis of Dentition and Occlusion. In: Moyers RE, editor. Handbook of orthodontics. 4 ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1988. p. 235-40.
3. Staley RN, Hu P, Hoag JF, Shelly TH. Prediction of the combined right and left canine and premolar widths in both arches of the mixed dentition. Pediatr Dent 1983;5(1):57-60.
4. Huckaba GW. Arch Size Analysis and Tooth Size Prediction. Dent Clin North Am 1964;7:431-40.
5. Hixon EH, Oldfather RE. Estimation of the sizes of unerupted cuspids and bicuspids. Angle Orthod 1958;28(4);236-40.
6. Bishara SE, Jakobsen JR, Abdallah EM, Fernandez Garcia A. Comparisons of mesiodistal and buccolingual crown dimensions of the permanent teeth in three populations from Egypt, Mexico, and the United States. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1989;96(5):416-22.
7. Uysal T, Basciftci FA, Goyenc Y. New regression equations for mixed-dentition arch analysis in a Turkish sample with no Bolton tooth-size discrepancy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009;135(3):343-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2007.01.036
8. Lee-Chan S, Jacobson BN, Chwa KH, Jacobson RS. Mixed dentition analysis for Asian-Americans. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1998;113(3):293-9. \
9. Flores-Mir C, Bernabe E, Camus C, Carhuayo MA, Major PW. Prediction of mesiodistal canine and premolar tooth width in a sample of Peruvian adolescents. Orthod Craniofac Res 2003;6(3):173-6.
10. Al-Khadra BH. Prediction of the size of unerupted canines and premolars in a Saudi Arab population. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1993;104(4):369-72.
11. Al-Bitar ZB, Al-Omari IK, Sonbol HN, Al-Ahmad HT, Hamdan AM. Mixed dentition analysis in a Jordanian population. Angle Orthod 2008;78(4):670-5. DOI: 10.2319/0003-3219(2008)078[0670:MDAIAJ]2.0.CO;2
12. Alessandri Bonetti G, Verganti S, Zanarini M, Bonetti S, Gatto MR. Mixed dentition space analysis for a northern Italian population: new regression equations for unerupted teeth. Prog Orthod. 2011;12(2):94-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.pio.2011.02.001
13. Nourallah AW, Gesch D, Khordaji MN, Splieth C. New regression equations for predicting the size of unerupted canines and premolars in a contemporary population. Angle Orthod 2002;72(3):216-21. DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(2002)072<0216:NREFPT>2.0.CO;2
14. Philip NI, Prabhakar M, Arora D, Chopra S. Applicability of the Moyers mixed dentition probability tables and new prediction aids for a contemporary population in India. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2010;138(3):339-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2008.09.035
15. Yuen KK, Tang EL, So LL. Mixed dentition analysis for Hong Kong Chinese. Angle Orthod. 1998;68(1):21-8. DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(1998)068<0021:MDAFHK>2.3.CO;2
16. Jaroontham J, Godfrey K. Mixed dentition space analysis in a Thai population. Eur J Orthod 2000;22(2):127-34.
17. Otuyemi OD, Noar JH. A comparison of crown size dimensions of the permanent teeth in a Nigerian and a British population. Eur J Orthod 1996;18(6):623-8.
18. Diagne F, Diop-Ba K, Ngom PI, El Boury O. Mixed dentition analysis in a Moroccan population. Odontostomatol Trop 2004;27(108):5-10.
19. Mengal N, Afzal A. Mixed dentition analysis for Pakistani population. J Surg Pak 2004;9:10-4.
20. Bherwani AK, Fida M. Development of a prediction equation for the mixed dentition in a Pakistani sample. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011;140(5):626-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2011.02.024
21. Memon S, Fida M. Comparison of three mixed dentition analysis methods in orthodontic patients at AKUH. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2010;20(8):533-7. DOI: 04.2010/JCPSP.533537
22. Altherr ER, Koroluk LD, Phillips C. Influence of sex and ethnic tooth-size differences on mixed-dentition space analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007;132(3):332-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2005.08.043
23. Moorrees CF, Reed RB. Correlations among crown diameters of human teeth. Arch Oral Biol 1964;9:685-97.
24. Lundstrom A. Tooth morphology as a basis for distinguishing monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Am J Hum Genet 1963;15:34-43.
25. Bishara SE, Fernandez Garcia A, Jakobsen JR, Fahl JA. Mesiodistal crown dimensions in Mexico and the United States. Angle Orthod 1986;56(4):315-23. DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(1986)056<0315:MCDIMA>2.0.CO;2
26. Ballard ML. Asymmetry in Tooth Size: A Factor in the Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Malocclusion. Angle Orthod 1944;14(3):67-70.
27. Abu Alhaija ES, Qudeimat MA. Mixed dentition space analysis in a Jordanian population: comparison of two methods. Int J Paediatr Dent 2006;16(2):104-10. Epub 2006/01/25. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2006.00700.x
28. Arslan SG, Dildes N, Kama JD, Genc C. Mixed-dentition analysis in a Turkish population. World J Orthod 2009;10(2):135-40.
29. Frankel HH, Benz EM. Mixed dentition analysis for black Americans. Pediatr Dent 1986;8(3):226-30.
30. Garn SM, Lewis AB, Kerewsky RS. X-linkage inheritance of tooth size. J Dent Res 1965;44(2):439-41.
31. Bernabe E, Flores-Mir C. Are the lower incisors the best predictors for the unerupted canine and premolars sums? an analysis of a Peruvian sample. Angle Orthod 2005;75(2):202-7. DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(2005)075<0198:ATLITB>2.0.CO;2
32. Legovic M, Novosel A, Legovic A. Regression equations for determining mesiodistal crown diameters of canines and premolars. Angle Orthod 2003;73(3):314-8. DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(2003)073<0314:REFDMC>2.0.CO;2
33. Memon S, Fida M. Development of a prediction equation for the estimation of mandibular canine and premolar widths from mandibular first permanent molar and incisor widths. Eur J Orthod 2012;34(3):340-4. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjr015
34. Melgaco CA, de Sousa Araujo MT, de Oliveira Ruellas AC. Mandibular permanent first molar and incisor width as predictor of mandibular canine and premolar width. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007;132(3):340-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2005.07.033