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Syed Shahid Habib
Ashraf Husain
Kausar Naz
Laila Al Dokhi


Objectives: 1) To find out the frequency of smoking in Saudi diabetic patients and to know the frequency of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in regular smoker, ex-smoker and non-smoker diabetic subjects. 2): To evaluate and compare the glycemic and lipid control between diabetic smokers and diabetic non-smokers. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at department of Physiology and Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University. A total of 1000 Saudi diabetic patients (509 Males & 491 females) were studied. They were evaluated for the presence of IHD and cardiovascular risk factors. Smoking was defined as current regular cigarette smoking or ex-smoking without regard to daily consumption. Results: The frequency of regular smokers in males was 6.87% (n=35), ex-smokers was 6.09% (n=31) and overall it was found to be 12.97% (n=66). Only 2 females were found to be smokers (0.20%). Therefore, only male subjects were studied. The ex-smokers and all smokers had higher body mass index than non-smokers (p<0.05). Smokers had poor glycemic control compared to non-smokers (p<0.05). Triglyceride levels were higher in ex-smokers and all smokers compared to never smokers (p<0.05). Prevalence of IHD in non smokers was 13.77%. In regular smoker and ex-smokers frequency of IHD was 22.58 and 24.24% respectively. Odds ratio of IHD in smokers was 2 (p<0.05). Conclusions: The frequency of smoking in Saudi diabetic patients is 12.97%. Diabetic smokers have poor glycemic and lipid control than non-smokers. Smoking doubles the risk of IHD in diabetes mellitus. Frequency of IHD is similar between regular and ex-smokers. Key Words: Smoking, Diabetes Mellitus, Dyslipidemia, Ischemic Heart Disease This article may be cited as: Habib SS, Husain A, Naz K, Dokhi LA. Frequency of smoking and its relationship to ischemic heart disease in Saudi diabetic males. Khyber Med Univ J 2012; 4(4): 149-155.

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Syed Shahid Habib, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Dept of Basic and Clinical Physiology

Associate Professor and Consultant Neurophysiology


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