FREQUENCY OF SMOKING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE IN SAUDI MALE DIABETIC PATIENTS

Main Article Content

Syed Shahid Habib
Ashraf Husain
Kausar Naz
Laila Al Dokhi

Abstract

Objectives: 1) To find out the frequency of smoking in Saudi diabetic patients and to know the frequency of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in regular smoker, ex-smoker and non-smoker diabetic subjects. 2): To evaluate and compare the glycemic and lipid control between diabetic smokers and diabetic non-smokers. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at department of Physiology and Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University. A total of 1000 Saudi diabetic patients (509 Males & 491 females) were studied. They were evaluated for the presence of IHD and cardiovascular risk factors. Smoking was defined as current regular cigarette smoking or ex-smoking without regard to daily consumption. Results: The frequency of regular smokers in males was 6.87% (n=35), ex-smokers was 6.09% (n=31) and overall it was found to be 12.97% (n=66). Only 2 females were found to be smokers (0.20%). Therefore, only male subjects were studied. The ex-smokers and all smokers had higher body mass index than non-smokers (p<0.05). Smokers had poor glycemic control compared to non-smokers (p<0.05). Triglyceride levels were higher in ex-smokers and all smokers compared to never smokers (p<0.05). Prevalence of IHD in non smokers was 13.77%. In regular smoker and ex-smokers frequency of IHD was 22.58 and 24.24% respectively. Odds ratio of IHD in smokers was 2 (p<0.05). Conclusions: The frequency of smoking in Saudi diabetic patients is 12.97%. Diabetic smokers have poor glycemic and lipid control than non-smokers. Smoking doubles the risk of IHD in diabetes mellitus. Frequency of IHD is similar between regular and ex-smokers. Key Words: Smoking, Diabetes Mellitus, Dyslipidemia, Ischemic Heart Disease This article may be cited as: Habib SS, Husain A, Naz K, Dokhi LA. Frequency of smoking and its relationship to ischemic heart disease in Saudi diabetic males. Khyber Med Univ J 2012; 4(4): 149-155.

Article Details

How to Cite
Habib, S., A. Husain, K. Naz, and L. Dokhi. “FREQUENCY OF SMOKING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE IN SAUDI MALE DIABETIC PATIENTS”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, Vol. 4, no. 4, Dec. 2012, pp. 149-55, https://www.kmuj.kmu.edu.pk/article/view/10990.
Section
Original Articles
Author Biography

Syed Shahid Habib, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Dept of Basic and Clinical Physiology

Associate Professor and Consultant Neurophysiology

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