Main Article Content

Amina Zehra Iqbal
Sarah Basharat
Adeel Basharat
Shifa Basharat
Aneela Ambareen
Saima Gillani


OBJECTIVES: To estimate the frequency of dyslipidemias in 6-12 years old Pakistani children attending pediatric clinic.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at private clinic Peshawar, Pakistan after parental consent, on 85 (42 male, 43 female) children, with age ranging 6-12 years. Measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting lipid profile and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were recorded. Children with diabetes, renal or lipid disorders and their sibs, and those using metabolic profile altering medications were excluded from study.

RESULTS:  About 18% of the participants were either obese (n=8, 9.5%) or overweight (n=7, 8.3%). In male children, mean BMI was 15.0±2.6 and 18.1±4.9 for 6-8 years and 9-12 years age respectively. In female children, mean BMI was 14.9±1.1 and 17.8±3.5 for 6-8 years and 9-12 years age respectively. Mean FBS was 4.5±0.5 mmol/L. Total cholesterol (mmol/L) was 3.98±.79 & 4.20±.46 for males and females of 6-8 years age and 4.27±.48 & 4.22±.54 for males and females of 9-12 years age respectively. Similarly, low density lipoprotein cholestreol (mmol/L) was 2.27±.51 & 2.53±.46 for males and females of 6-8 years age and 2.53±.50 & 2.45±.49 for males and females of 9-12 years age respectively. Eighty-nine percent of children had at least one lipid abnormality. The most prevalent lipid abnormality was low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), borderline low or low in 75% (95% CI: 64–84).

CONCLUSION: Low level of HDL-c is the most prevalent lipid abnormality in 6-12 years old Pakistani children. 

Article Details

How to Cite
Iqbal, A., S. Basharat, A. Basharat, S. Basharat, A. Ambareen, and S. Gillani. “FREQUENCY OF DYSLIPIDEMIAS IN 6-12 YEARS OLD PAKISTANI CHILDREN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY”. KHYBER MEDICAL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL, Vol. 8, no. 1, Apr. 2016,
Original Articles
Author Biography

Amina Zehra Iqbal

Head of Department of Pediatrics

Kabir Medical College and Nasir Teaching Hospital



1. Mathers CD, Lopez AD, Murray C. Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors; Chapter 3: The Burden of Disease and Mortality by Condition: Data, Methods, and Results for 2001. Washington (DC): World Bank; Chapter 3; 2006.

2. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990-2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 1997 May 24;349(9064):1498-504.

3. Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S, Anand S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part II: variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies. Circulation 2001 Dec 4;104(23):2855-64.

4. Khatib O. Noncommunicable diseases: risk factors and regional strategies for prevention and care. East Mediterr Health J 2004 Nov;10(6):778-88.

5. World Health Organization. WHO Health Statistics and Health Information Systems: Disease and Injury Country Estiamtes: 2004; 2008. 2011. 4-25-2011.

6. McGill H, Jr., McMahan CA, Zieske AW, Sloop GD, Walcott JV, Troxclair DA, et al. Associations of coronary heart disease risk factors with the intermediate lesion of atherosclerosis in youth. The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) Research Group. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000 Aug;20(8):1998-2004.

7. Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP 3, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA. Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med 1998 Jun 4;338(23):1650-6.

8. Davis PH, Dawson JD, Riley WA, Lauer RM. Carotid intimal-medial thickness is related to cardiovascular risk factors measured from childhood through middle age: The Muscatine Study. Circulation 2001 Dec 4;104(23):2815-9.

9. Gidding SS, McMahan CA, McGill HC, Colangelo LA, Schreiner PJ, Williams OD, et al. Prediction of coronary artery calcium in young adults using the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) risk score: the CARDIA study. Arch Intern Med 2006 Nov 27;166(21):2341-7.

10. Juonala M, Viikari JS, Rönnemaa T, Marniemi J, Jula A, Loo BM, et al. Associations of dyslipidemias from childhood to adulthood with carotid intima-media thickness, elasticity, and brachial flow-mediated dilatation in adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008 May;28(5):1012-7.

11. Li S, Chen W, Srinivasan SR, Bond MG, Tang R, Urbina EM, et al. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors and carotid vascular changes in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. JAMA 2003 Nov 5;290(17):2271-6.

12. Mahoney LT, Burns TL, Stanford W, Thompson BH, Witt JD, Rost CA, et al. Coronary risk factors measured in childhood and young adult life are associated with coronary artery calcification in young adults: the Muscatine Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996 Feb;27(2):277-84.

13. McMahan CA, Gidding SS, Viikari JS, Juonala M, Kähönen M, Hutri-Kähönen N, et al. Association of Pathobiologic Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth risk score and 15-year change in risk score with carotid artery intima-media thickness in young adults (from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study). Am J Cardiol 2007 Oct 1;100(7):1124-9.

14. Klag MJ, Ford DE, Mead LA, He J, Whelton PK, Liang KY. Serum cholesterol in young men and subsequent cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1993 Feb 4;328(5):3131-318.

15. Daniels SR, Greer F, Committee on Nutrition. Lipid screening and cardiovascular health in childhood. Pediatrics 2008 Jul;122(1):198-208.

16. Haney EM, Huffman LH, Bougatsos C, Freeman M, Steiner RD, Nelson HD. Screening and treatment for lipid disorders in children and adolescents: systematic evidence review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Pediatrics 2007 Jul;120(1):e189-e214.

17. Kavey RE, Allada V, Daniels SR, Hayman LL, McCrindle BW, Newburger JW, et al. Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation 2006 Dec 12;114(24):2710-38.

18. National Cholesterol Education Program. 1992 Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics 1992 Mar;89(Suppl):524-84.

19. International Monetary Fund. World Economic Outlook Database, April 2011: Nominal GDP list of countries. Data for the year 2010. 2010.

20. Zehra A. Estimates of prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome with it various definitions and cutoff points for the component abnormalities among school age Pakistani children in Hayatabad Town, Peshawar. Unpublished Work 2011.

21. Badruddin SH, Khurshid M, Molla A, Manser WW, Lalani R, Vellani CW. Factors associated with elevated serum cholesterol levels in well-to-do Pakistani schoolchildren. J Trop Med Hyg 1991 Apr;94(2):123-9.

22. Badruddin SH, Molla A, Khurshid M, Vaz S, Hassanali S. Cardiovascular risk factors in school children from low middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 1994 May;44(5):106-12.

23. Lwanga SK, Lemeshow S. Sample size determination in health studies : a practical manual. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1991. viii, 80 p.; 1991.

24. EpiData Data Entry, Data Management and basic Statistical Analysis System [computer program]. EpiData Association, Odense Denmark; 2008.

25. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing [computer program]. Version 2.13. Vienna, Austria: 2011.

26. Stata Statistical Software: Release 8 [computer program]. StataCorp, College Station, TX: StataCorp LP; 2008.

27. Bachorik PS, Lovejoy KL, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Apolipoprotein B and AI distributions in the United States, 1988-1991: results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). Clin Chem 1997 Dec;43(12):2364-78.

28. Freedman DS, Bowman BA, Otvos JD, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Levels and correlates of LDL and VLDL particle sizes among children: the Bogalusa heart study. Atherosclerosis 2000 Oct;152(2):441-9.

29. NCEP Experet Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP): HIghlights of the report of the expert panel on blood cholesterol levels in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 1992 Mar;89:495-501.

30. Alberti G, Zimmet P, Kaufman F, Tajima N, Silink M, Arslanian S, et al. The IDF consensus definition of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. 2007.

31. Cook S, Weitzman M, Auinger P, Nguyen M, Dietz WH. Prevalence of a Metabolic SyndromePhenotype in Adolescents: Findings From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003 Aug;157(8):821-7.

32. Cruz LM, Weigensberg MJ, Huang T-K, Goran MI. The Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Hispanic Youth and the Role of Insulin Sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:108-13.

33. de Ferranti S, Gauvreau K, Ludwig DS, Neufeld EJ, Rifai N. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in American adolescents: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Circulation 2004 Oct;110(16):2494-7.

34. Ford ES, Ajani UA, Mokdad AH. The metabolic syndrome and concentrations of C-reactive protein among U.S. youth. Diabetes Care 2005 Apr;28(4):871-81.

35. Weiss R, Dziura J, Yeckel CW, Allen K, Lopes M, Savoye M, et al. Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents. N Engl J Med 2004;350(23):2362-74.

36. Ogden CL, Flegal KM. Changes in terminology for childhood overweight and obesity. Natl Health Stat Report 2010 Jun 5;(25):1-5.

37. Ohta T, Saku K, Nakamura R, Maung KK, Matsuda I. Comparison of children and coronary heart disease patients with low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Atherosclerosis 1998 Apr;137(2):321-8.

38. Roussell MA, Kris-Etherton P. Effects of lifestyle interventions on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. J Clin Lipidol 2007 Mar;(1):1-65.

39. Rahilly-Tierney C, Sesso HD, Djoussé L, Gaziano JM. Lifestyle changes and 14-year change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in a cohort of male physicians. Am Heart J 2011 Apr;161(4):712-8.