Main Article Content
OBJECTIVE: To find out changes induced in normal gait parameters due to backpack.
METHODS: Thirty university healthy female students participated in this study through convenient sampling technique after taking consent. Participants were asked to walk twice on GAITRite® mat first without carrying backpack and then with a 3kg back pack over single shoulder. GAITRite® System version 4.7.7 was used. The individuals presented with fractures, any type of pain, orthopedic problems, neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, cerebral palsy, myelodysplasia or arthritis and congenital or spinal deformities were excluded.
RESULTS: The mean age, height and weight of participants were 21.37±1.18 years, 1.62±.043 meters and 45.56±5.04 kilogram respectively. Gait was evaluated and there was decrease in the velocity on wearing the backpack on single shoulder in contrast with velocity when no backpack was worn over either left or right shoulder from 109.13±10.89 to 105.79±10.85 (p=0.001), stance parameter of gait had no significant difference when subjects worn the backpack over one shoulder in comparison when walked without carrying the backpack 61.5±1.42 to 61.36±1.53 (p=0.288). No significant changes were recorded in left double limb support and right double limb support, before and after wearing backpack 23.09±2.5 to 22.91±2.79 (p=0.489) and 22.98±2.42 to 22.69±2.78 (p=0.348) respectively. Same is the case in left single limb support and right single limb support 38.34±1.37 to 38.44±1.53 (p=0.565) and 38.68±1.59 to 38.83±1.53 (p=0.493).
CONCLUSION: The study concluded that wearing backpack over one shoulder causes significant changes in velocity while no changes observed in single and double limb support.
KEY WORDS: Gait (MsSH); GAITRite® system (Non-MeSH); Backpack (Non-MeSH); Velocity (Non-MeSH); Single limb support (Non-MeSH); Double limb support (Non-MeSH).
Work published in KMUJ is licensed under a
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
1. Abaraogu UO, Ugwa WO, Onwuka E, Orji E. Effect of single and double backpack strap loading on gait and perceived exertion of young adults. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2016;29(1):109-15.DOI: 10.3233/BMR-150605.
2. Heuscher Z, Gilkey DP, Peel JL, Kennedy CA. The association of self-reported backpack use and backpack weight with low back pain among college students. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2010;33(6):432-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2010.06.003.
3. Forjuoh S, Schuchmann J, Lane B. Correlates of heavy backpack use by elementary school children. Public Health 2004;118(7):532. DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2003.10.010.
4. Lehnen GC, Magnani RM, Sá e Souza GS, Rodrigues FB, Andrade AO, Vieira MF. Effects of backpack loads and positions on the variability of gait spatiotemporal parameters in young adults. Res Biomed Eng 2017;33(4):277-84. DOI: 10.1590/2446-4740.03517.
5. Błaszczyk JW, Plewa M, Cieślinska-Swider J, Bacik B, Zahorska-Markiewicz B, Markiewicz A. Impact of excess body weight on walking at the preferred speed. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2011;71(4):528-40.
6. Lovejoy CO. The natural history of human gait and posture: Part 1. Spine and pelvis. Gait Posture 2005;21(1):95-112. DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.01.001.
7. Zijlstra W, Hof AL. Assessment of spatio-temporal gait parameters from trunk accelerations during human walking. Gait posture. 2003;18(2):1-10. DOI: 10.1016/S0966-6362(02)00190-X.
8. Hebenstreit F, Leibold A, Krinner S, Welsch G, Lochmann M, Eskofier BM. Effect of walking speed on gait sub phase durations. Hum Mov Sci 2015;43:118-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.humov.2015.07.009
9. Birrell SA, Haslam RA. The effect of military load carriage on 3-D lower limb kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters. Ergonomics 2009;52(10):1298-304. DOI: 10.1080/00140130903003115.
10. Singh T, Koh M. Effects of backpack load position on spatiotemporal parameters and trunk forward lean. Gait posture 2009;29(1):49-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.06.006.
11. Rai A, Agarwal S, Bharti S. Postural effect of back packs on school children: its consequences on their body posture. Int J Health Sci Res 2013;3(10):109-16.
12. Oberg T, Karsznia A, Oberg K. Basic gait parameters: reference data for normal subjects, 10-79 years of age. J Rehabil Res Dev 1993;30(2):210-23.
13. Finley FR, Cody KA, Finizie RV. Locomotion patterns in elderly women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1969;50(3):140-6.
14. Kinoshita H. Effects of different loads and carrying systems on selected biomechanical parameters describing walking gait. Ergonomics 1985;28(9):1347-62. DOI: 10.1080/00140138508963251.
15. Connolly BH, Cook B, Hunter S, Laughter M, Mills A, Nordtvedt N, et al. Effects of backpack carriage on gait parameters in children. Pediatr Phys Ther 2008;20(4):347-55. DOI: 10.1097/PEP.0b013e31818a0f8f
16. Chow DH, Kwok ML, Au-Yang AC, Holmes AD, Cheng JC, Yao FY, et al. The effect of backpack load on the gait of normal adolescent girls. Ergonomics 2005;48(6):642-56. DOI: 10.1080/00140130500070921.
17. Smith KU, McDermid CD, Shideman FE. Analysis of the temporal components of motion in human gait. Am J Phys Med 1960;39(4):142-51.
18. Cottalorda J, Rahmani A, Diop M, Gautheron V, Ebermeyer E, Belli A. Influence of school bag carrying on gait kinetics. J Pediatr Orthop B 2003;12(6):357-64.