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Fazia Ghaffar
Asma Waheed


OBJECTIVE: To determine demographic, dietary and psychological factors leading to coronary heart disease in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
METHODS: This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted at
the cardiac unit of Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from September 2012 to December 2012. A random sample of 200 Pakhtun cardiac patients were thoroughly investigated for demographic parameters, anthropometric measurement, food frequency record, and “Depression Anxiety Stress Scales” was submitted for the prevalence of depression,anxiety and stress.
RESULTS: In factors assessed; rural background (75%), complex family structures (71%), illiteracy (68.5%), male smokers (64.75%), large families (9.84±2.57 members), low income (Rs. 8610±953) and less activity were identified as major risk factors. Being overweight (BM1=31.2±5.58 males and 27.98±1.92 females) with low High-density lipoproteins (HDL) (16.85±5.6), higher blood cholesterol (325±13.5 mg/dl), high triglycerides levels (232±10.7), diabetes mellitus (45%) and hypertension (29.5%) were the major biological factors. Dietary intake revealed high beef intake per week (65.5%), milk (97%), carbohydrates mostly wheat as staple food (90.5%) and low consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits. Daily intake of saturated fat (Ghee) (92%), animal fat, while fried and bakery items were also frequently consumed. The study also found a greater percentage of patients having moderate to mild anxiety, depression and stress posing to be health risks in CVD.
CONCLUSION: Coronary heart disease follows a multidimensional
scenario in KP which needs to be addressed to prevent people of this
region from vicious cycle of disease.
KEY WORDS: Risk factors (Non-MeSH), demographic factor, dietary
intake patterns, biological factors, DAAS psychological test

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Author Biography

Fazia Ghaffar, Department of Food & Nutrition Sciences College of Home Economics University of Peshawar

Head, Department of Food & Nutrition Sciences
College of Home Economics
University of Peshawar


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