OBECTIVE: To evaluate different parameters of lipid metabolism serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
METHODS: This case-control study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine & Metabolic Diseases (BIRDEM) Hospital from January 2009 to December 2009. Sixty (36 GDM and 24 healthy) pregnant women at their 3rd trimester, selected by convenient-sampling method were included in the study. Data was collected by a structured questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS-22.
RESULTS: Mean age was 30.05+5.62 years & 28.87+4.17 years in patients with GDM and without GDM respectively. Mean fasting blood sugar in patient with GDM was 8.27±2.5 mmol/L as compared to 4.9±.71 mmol/L in non-GMD group (p <.001). Mean blood sugar after 2 hours of 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test was 12.62±2.1 mmol/L and 6.28±3.1 mmol/L in GDM & non-GDM patients respectively (p<0.05). The lipid profile in GDM was found to be altered than those of healthy pregnant women in general. There was no statistically significant difference in serum TC, LDL-C in both groups. Serum TG level was found to be statistically higher and HDL-C level was statistically lower in GDM women comparing to healthy pregnant women (p<.05).
CONCLUSION: The lipid profile in GDM found to be altered than the healthy pregnant women. TG level was higher in GDM and HDL-C level was lower in GDM than in healthy pregnant women.
KEY WORDS: Gestational Diabetes (MeSH); Dyslipidemias (MeSH); Lipids (MeSH); Cholesterol (MeSH); Triglycerides (MeSH); Cholesterol, HDL(MeSH); Cholesterol, LDL (MeSH); Pregnancy (MeSH)
Metzger BE, Coustan DR. Summary and recommendations of the Fourth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes care 1998;21(Suppl 2):B161-7. Epub 1998/08/15
Ferrara A. Increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: a public health perspective. Diabetes care 2007;30(Suppl 2):S141-6.
Kaaja RJ, Greer IA. Manifestations of chronic disease during pregnancy. JAMA 2005;294(21):2751–7. doi: 10.1001/jama.294.21.2751.
Lekva T, Bollerslev J, Norwitz ER, Aukrust P, Henriksen T, Ueland T. Aortic Stiffness and Cardiovascular Risk in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. PLoS One 2015;10(8):e0136892.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136892.
Bartels Ä, Egan N, Broadhurst DI, Khashan AS, Joyce C, Stapleton M, et al. Maternal serum cholesterol levels are elevated from the 1st trimester of pregnancy: A cross-sectional study. J Obstet Gynaecol 2012;32(8):747–52. doi: 10.3109/01443615.2012.714017.
Brizzi P, Tonolo G, Esposito F, Puddu L, Dessole S, Maioli M, et al. Lipoprotein metabolism during normal pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181(2):430–4. doi: 10.1016/S0002-9378(99)70574-0.
Piechota W, Staszewski A. Reference ranges of lipids and apolipoproteins in pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1992;45(1):27–35. doi: 10.1016/0028-2243(92)90190-A.
Lippi G, Albiero A, Montagnana M, Salvagno GL, Scevarolli S, Franchi M, et al. Lipid and lipoprotein profile in physiological pregnancy. Clin Lab 2007;53(3–4):173–7.
Husain F, Latif S, Uddin M, Nessa A. Lipid profile changes in second trimester of pregnancy. Mymensingh Med J 2008;17(1):17–21.
Ghio A, Bertolotto A, Resi V, Volpe L, Di Cianni G. Triglyceride metabolism in pregnancy. Adv Clin Chem 2011;55:133–53. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-387042-1.00007-1.
Carpenter MW. Gestational Diabetes, pregnancy hypertension, and late vascular disease. Diabetes care 2007;30(suppl 2):S246-50.
Catov JM, Bodnar LM, Kip KE, Hubel C, Ness RB, Harger G, et al. Early pregnancy lipid concentrations and spontaneous preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;197(6):610-e1-7.
Herrera E. Lipid metabolism in pregnancy and its consequences in the fetus and newborn. Endocrine 2002;19(1):43–55. doi: 10.1385/ENDO:19:1:43.
Herrera E, Ortega-Senovilla H. Lipid metabolism during pregnancy and its implications for fetal growth. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2014;15(1):24–31. doi: 10.2174/1389201015666140330192345
Meyers-scifer CH, Vohr BR. Lipid levels in former gestational diabetic mothers. Diabetic care 1996;19(12):1351-6.
Clark CM, Qiu C, Amerman B, Porter B, Fineberg N, Aldasouqi S, et al. Gestational Diabetes: Should it be added to the syndrome of insulin resistence ? Diabetic Care 1997;20(5):867-71.
Butte NF. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in pregnancy: Normal compared with gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5):1256-61.
Jin WY, Lin SL, Hou RL, Chen XY, Han T, Jin Y, et al. Associations between maternal lipid profile and pregnancy complications and perinatal outcomes: a population-based study from China. BMC pregnancy childbirth 2016 21;16(1):60.
Knoop RH, Van Allen MI, McNeely M, Walder CE, Plovic B, Shiota K, et al. Effect of Insulin- dependent diabetes on plasma lipoproteins in diabetic pregnancy . J Reprod Med 1993;38(9):703-10.
Herrera E, Ortega-Senovilla H. Disturbances in lipid metabolism in diabetic pregnancy – are these the cause of the problem? Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinal Metab 2010;24(4):515-25.
Ryckman KK, Spracklen CN, Smith CJ, Robinson JG, Saftlas AF. Maternal lipid level during pregnancy and gestational diabetes : a systemic review and meta-analysis. Br J Obstet Gynecol 2015;122(5):643-51.
Sobki SH, Al-Senaidy AM, Al-Shammari TA, Inam SS, Al-Gwiser AA, Bukhari SA. Impact of gestational diabetes on lipid profiling and indices of oxidative stress in maternal and cord plasma. Saudi Med J 2004;25(7):876-80.
Montelongo A, Lasunción MA, Pallardo LF, Herrera E. Longitudinal study of plasma lipoproteins and hormones during pregnancy in normal and diabetic women. Diabetes 1992;41(12):1651-9.
Mazurkiewicz JC, Watts GF, Warburton FG, Slavin BM, Lowy C, Koukkou E. Serum lipids, lipoprotein and apolipoproteins in pregnant non diabetic patients. J Clin Pathol 1994;47(8):728-31.
Vani K. Alterations of lipid profile in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 DMwomen during pregnancy. Int J Med Res Rev 2015;3(8):800-804.
Work published in KMUJ is licensed under a
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.