Main Article Content
OBJECTIVE: This pilot study was conducted to find out the socioeconomic factors leading to depression in married females of district Ghizar, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan.
METHODS: The study was conducted at District Headquarter Hospital Gahkuch, Ghizar from November 2015 to February 2016. Depression was diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criterion and socioeconomic status was assessed by a self-designed questionnaire. Analysis was performed with SPSS version-23.
RESULTS: Out of 73 females, 53 (72.6%) were depressed according to DSM-IV. Majority of women were uneducated (n=23; 31.5%). Most females were married (n=50; 68.5%) followed by divorced females (n=8; 11%). Sixty-one (83%) women had arranged marriage. Majority of women (n=43; 58.9%) were housewives. Most females (n=37; 50.7%) had non-cordial relations with in-laws. Domestic violence was reported by (n=41; 56.2%) women. Sixty-one (83.5%) women had land ownership of some kind. Women who were married within the family (OR 1.386, CI .837-2.292), presence of depression in husband (OR 3.530, CI .933-13.359), non-cordial relation of women with in-laws (OR 3.657, CI 1.979-6.755) and domestic violence (OR 3.584, CI 0.717-17.921) were significantly associated with depression.
CONCLUSION: Majority of the females had no cordial relations with in-laws, more than half had history of domestic abuse. Marriages outside family had inverse relation with depression. Depression in husband and bad relationship of women with in-laws were strong predictors for depression in married females of district Ghizar, Gilgit Baltistan. Small sample size and hospital-based study were the main limitations of the study.
KEY WORDS: Depression (MeSH); Socioeconomic Factors (MeSH); Domestic Violence (MeSH).
Work published in KMUJ is licensed under a
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
1. The global burden of disease, World health organization. [Online].; 2004. [Cited on 2017, May 20]. Available from URL: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global burden disease/GBD report 2004update full.pdf
2. Depression Fact Sheet, World Health Organization. [Online].; 2015. [Cited on 2017, May 20]. Available from URL: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs369/en/
3. Weich S, Lewis G. Material standard of living, social class, and the prevalence of the common mental disorders in Great Britain. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998 Jan; 52(1): 8-14.
4. Niaz U, Hassan S, Hussain H, Siddiquie S. A cross-sectional study of the frequency of psychiatric morbidity in affluent urban population of Karachi. Pak J Med Sci 2004; 20(4):337-44.
5. Mumford DB, Nazir M, Jilani FU, Baig IY. Stress and psychiatric disorder in the Hindu Kush: a community survey of mountain villages in Chitral, Pakistan. Br J Psychiatry 1996 Mar;168(3):299-307.
6. Explore Gilgit Baltistan. [Online]. [Cited on 2017, May 20]. Available from URL: http://www.gilgit.net/index.html.
7. Government of Gilgit Baltistan, Planning & Development Department Statistical Cell. [Online].; 2013 [Cited on 2017, May 20]. Available from URL: http://www.gilgitbaltistan.gov.pk/DownloadFiles/GBFinancilCurve.pdf.
8. National Institute of Population Studies, Government of Pakistan. [Online].; 2008 [Cited on 2017, May 20]. Available from URL: http://www.nips.org.pk/abstracts.php?pageno=4.
9. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) DSM-IV; 1994.
10. Zainab S, Fatmi Z, Kazi A. Risk factors for depression among married women belonging to higher and lower socioeconomic status in Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2012 Mar;62(3):249-53.
11. Niaz U. Women’s Mental Health in Pakistan. World psychiatry 2004 Feb;3(1):60-2.
12. Benazon NR, Coyne JC. Living with a depressed spouse. J Fam Psychol 2000 Mar;14(1):71-9.
13. Du Rocher Schudlich TD, Papp LM, Cummings EM. Relations between Spouses’ Depressive Symptoms and Marital Conflict: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Role of Conflict Resolution Styles. J Fam Psychol 2011 Aug;25(4):531–40. DOI: 10.1037/a0024216.
14. Ali BS, Rahbar MH, Naeem S, Tareen AL, Gul A, Samad L. Prevalence of and factors associated with anxiety and depression among women in a lower middle class semi-urban community of Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2002 Nov;52(11):513-7.
15. Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. [Online]; 2016. [Cited on 2017, May 20]. Available from URL: http://hrcp-web.org/hrcpweb/wp-content/uploads/2016/04.