RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION PATIENTS ADMITTED AT THREE HEALTH CENTRES OF SINDH, PAKISTAN: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

Bakhtyar Ali Shah, Imdad Ali Khushk

Abstract


 

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among adults aged >40 years.

METHODS: A sample containing 100 cases and 200 controls were se­lected consecutively. Inclusion criteria for cases were patients with AMI, aged 40 years and above; while controls had patients with normal ECG interpretation, aged 40 years and above. Both genders (male/ females) were included as cases and controls. Patients with multiple admissions, with coma or critical condition or those who refused to participate in the study were excluded.

RESULTS: Among 300 subjects, there were 156 males (52%) and 144 females (48%). Majority of subjects (52%) belonged to 40-50 years of age group. Thirty-one percent subjects were over-weight. Majority was non-smokers and carried out exercise. Majority (67.7%) also reported normal cholesterol levels. Among them, 111 (37%) were hyperten­sive, 23% diabetic, while 51.66% reported stress in their previous life. Males were more likely to develop AMI versus females (OR=3.09, 95%CI=1.50-3.10). Age group 40-50 years was also highly associated with AMI (OR=5.36, 95%CI=2.70-10.72). Patients who were smokers, with positive family history of cardiac diseases, hyper-cholesterol levels, hypertension, diabetes, stress and having no physical activity were more likely to develop AMI versus their controls.

CONCLUSION: This study found that age group 40–50 years, male gender, over-weight, stress, hypertension and positive family history are the major risk factors for acute AMI in the study population and most of these risk factors are modifiable.

KEY WORDS: Acute myocardial infarction (Non-MeSH); Coronary Artery Disease (MeSH); Risk factors (MeSH); Stress (Non-MeSH), Hypertension (MeSH), Body Mass Index (MeSH)


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