SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS OF DEPRESSION AMONG FEMALES VISITING OUTPATIENT CLINIC IN DISTRICT GHIZAR, GILGIT-BALTISTAN, PAKISTAN: A PILOT STUDY

Shakila Bano, Amimah Fatima Asif, Shoaib Saadat, Niaz Muhammad

Abstract


ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This pilot study was conducted to find out the socioeconomic factors leading to depression in married females of district Ghizar, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan.

METHODS:  The study was conducted at District Headquarter Hospital Gahkuch, Ghizar from November 2015 to February 2016. Depression was diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criterion and socioeconomic status was assessed by a self-designed questionnaire. Analysis was performed with SPSS version-23.

RESULTS: Out of 73 females, 53 (72.6%) were depressed according to DSM-IV. Majority of women were uneducated (n=23; 31.5%). Most females were married (n=50; 68.5%) followed by divorced females (n=8; 11%). Sixty-one (83%) women had arranged marriage. Majority of women (n=43; 58.9%) were housewives. Most females (n=37; 50.7%) had non-cordial relations with in-laws. Domestic violence was reported by (n=41; 56.2%) women.  Sixty-one (83.5%) women had land ownership of some kind.  Women who were married within the family (OR 1.386, CI .837-2.292), presence of depression in husband (OR 3.530, CI .933-13.359), non-cordial relation of women with in-laws (OR 3.657, CI 1.979-6.755) and domestic violence (OR 3.584, CI 0.717-17.921) were significantly associated with depression.

CONCLUSION: Majority of the females had no cordial relations with in-laws, more than half had history of domestic abuse. Marriages outside family had inverse relation with depression. Depression in husband and bad relationship of women with in-laws were strong predictors for depression in married females of district Ghizar, Gilgit Baltistan. Small sample size and hospital-based study were the main limitations of the study.

KEY WORDS: Depression (MeSH); Socioeconomic Factors (MeSH); Domestic Violence (MeSH).


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