Afsheen Masood, Fatima Kamran, Rafia Rafiq



OBJECTIVE: to elucidate the psychosocial correlates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the burn victims of Pakistan.

METHODOLOGY: A total of 200 burn victims were included in the sample. The standardized measures were used to assess the symptom levels of PTSD. The detailed demographic profile of the patients was also received for gleaning the demographics’ association with PTSD symptoms. The screening of PTSD symptoms for further clinical management had also been catered through this data collection strategy. For analysis SPSS Version 22.0 was employed.  

RESULT:  Mean age of the respondents was 30.56+10.3 years. Most of the respondents were males (n=111, 55.5%), panjabi speaking (n=120; 60%), followers of Islam (n=146; 73%), lower socioeconomic class (n=93; 45.5%), illiterate (n=114; 57%), Unemployed/Housewife (n=155; 77.5%) and were married (n=143; 71.5%). Most of the respondents had high PTSD levels (n=169; 84.5%). Panjabi natives (n=105/120; 87.5%), married persons (n=120/143), urban background (n= 110/118; 93.2%), persons currently living with children (n=102/123; 82.9%), Unemployed/Housewife (n=140/155; 90.3%), illiterate (n=109/114; 95.6%), respondents who experienced domestic violence (n=150/151; 99.3%) and those experienced burn injuries less than one-year duration (n=140/151; 92.7%) had higher PTSD levels than their counterparts.  Fifty-one (25.5 %) respondents had suicidal ideation.

CONCLUSION: Being male, married, illiterate, urban background, having history of domestic abuse, unemployed/housewives, having lower education level and experienced burn injuries less than one-year duration are significant psychosocial correlates of PTSD in patients with fire burns.

KEY WORDS: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (MeSH); Stress Disorder (MeSH); Burns (MeSH); Psychosocial factors (non-MeSH).

Full Text:




World Health Organization. Burns [WWW Document]; 2014. [Cited on: February 27, 2017]. Available from URL:

Attia AF, Sherif AA, Mandil AM, Massoud MN, Abou-Nazel MW, Arafa MA. Epidemiological and sociocultural study of burn patients in Alexandria, Egypt. East Mediterr Health J 1997;3(3):452–61.

Jaiswal A, Aggarwal H, Solanki P. Epidemiological and socio-cultural study of burn patients in MY Hospital, Indore, India. Indian J Plast Surg 2007;40(2):158–63. DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.33426

Kareem T. Girls Set to Fire. The Dawn. 2015 Aug 28;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).

Han P. Q&A: Acid attacks around the world [WWW Document]. CNN Connect World; 2010. URL

Nasrullah M, Muazzam S. Newspaper reports: a source of surveillance for burns among women in Pakistan. J Public Health (Oxford) 2010 Jun;32(2):245–9. DOI:10.1093/pubmed/fdp102

Pakistani Women Human Rights Association. Recent Victims of Inhuman Attacks with Acid [Internet] 2010. [Cited on: February 27, 2017]. Available from URL:

Gangemi EN, Gregori D, Berchialla P, Zingarelli E, Cairo M, Bollero D, et al. Epidemiology and risk factors for pathologic scarring after burn wounds. Arch. Facial Plast Surg 2008;10(2):93–102. DOI:10.1001/archfaci.10.2.93

Robert R, Meyer W, Bishop S, Rosenberg L, Murphy L, Blakeney P. Disfiguring burn scars and adolescent self-esteem. Burns 1999;25(7):581–5. DOI:10.1016/S0305-4179(99)00065-0

Dyster-Aas J, Kildal M, Willebrand M. Return to work and health-related quality of life after burn injury. J Rehabil Med 2007;39(1):49–55. DOI:10.2340/16501977-0005

Tedstone JE, Tarrier N. An investigation of the prevalence of psychological morbidity in burn-injured patients. Burns 1997;23(7-8):550–4.

Boeve SA1, Aaron LA, Martin-Herz SP, Peterson A, Cain V, Heimbach DM, et al. Sleep disturbance after burn injury. J Burn Care 2002;23(1):32-8. DOI:10.1097/00004630-200201000-00007

Maes M, Mylle J, Delmeire L, Altamura C. 2000. Psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity following accidental man-made traumatic events: incidence and risk factors. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2000;250(3):156–62. DOI:10.1007/s004060070034

Cakir U, Terzi R, Abaci F, Aker T. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in patients with burn injuries, and their quality of life. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2015 Mar;19(1):56-9. DOI:10.3109/13651501.2014.981545

American Psychiatric Association (APA). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [WWW Document] 2013. [Cited on: February 26, 2017]. Available from URL: Fact Sheet.pdf. DOI: 10.3390/bs7010007.

Zoellner LA, Bedard-Gilligan MA, Jun JJ, Marks LH, Garcia NM. The evolving construct of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): DSM-5 criteria changes and legal implications. Psychol Inj Law 2013;6(4):277–89. DOI:10.1007/s12207-013-9175-6

Kilpatrick D, Resnick H, Milanak M. National estimates of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD prevalence using DSM‐IV and DSM‐5 criteria. J Trauma Stress 2013 Oct;26(5):537-47. DOI: 10.1002/jts.21848.

Lukaschek K, Kruse J, Emeny RT, Lacruz ME, von Eisenhart Rothe A, Ladwig KH. Lifetime traumatic experiences and their impact on PTSD: a general population study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2013 Apr;48(4):525-32. DOI: 10.1007/s00127-012-0585-7.

Van Loey NE, Van Son MJM. Psychopathology and psychological problems in patients with burn scars. Am J Clin Dermatol 2003;4(4):245–72. DOI:10.2165/00128071-200304040-00004

Sadeghi-Bazargani H, Maghsoudi H, Soudmand-Niri M, Ranjbar F, Mashadi-Abdollahi H. Stress disorder and PTSD after burn injuries: a prospective study of predictors of PTSD at Sina Burn Center, Iran. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2011;7:425-9. DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S23041.

Cheng H, Li X, Miao H, Li R. The role of coping behavior in severely burned patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2015 Summer;27(3):188-92. DOI: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.13110334.

Kafi SM, Atashkar SR, AMIR AS, Rezvani S. Relationship of post-traumatic stress disorder with psychological defence styles in burn patients. 2013;19(3):155-60.

Bosmans MW, Hofland HW, De Jong AE, Van Loey NE. Coping with burns: the role of coping self-efficacy in the recovery from traumatic stress following burn injuries. J Behav Med 2015 Aug;38(4):642-51. DOI: 10.1007/s10865-015-9638-1.

Ven Loey NE, Maas CJ, Faber AW, Taal LA. Predictors of chronic posttraumatic stress symptoms following burn injury: results of a longitudinal study. J Trauma Stress 2003;16(4):361–9. DOI:10.1023/A:1024465902416

El Hamaoui Y, Yaalaoui S, Chihabeddine K, Boukind E, Moussaoui D. Post-traumatic stress disorder in burned patients. Burns 2002;28(7):647–650. DOI:10.1016/S0305-4179(02)00100-6

Lawrence JW, Fauerbach JA. Personality, coping, chronic stress, social support and PTSD symptoms among adult burn survivors: a path analysis. J. Burn Care Rehabil 2003;24(1):63–72. DOI:10.1097/00004630-200301000-00016

Xia ZY, Kong Y, Yin TT, Shi SH, Huang R, Cheng YH. The impact of acceptance of disability and psychological resilience on post-traumatic stress disorders in burn patients. Int J Nurs Sci 2014;1(4):371–375. DOI:10.1016/j.ijnss.2014.10.018

Ward HW, Moss RL, Darko DF, Berry CC, Anderson J, Kolman P, et al. Prevalence of postburn depression following burn injury.J Burn Care Rehabil 1987 Jul-Aug; 8(4):294-8.

Loo CM. Report on the Asian American Vietnam Veteran Race-Related Study (AVRS). Honolulu, HI: National Center for PTSD, Pacific Islands Division and Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Pacific Islands Health Care System. 2001





Member of COPE

Work published in KMUJ is licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License